PREFACE TO THE FIRST (1870) EDITION.
THE VAMPIRE'S FIRST STORY. In which a man deceives
THE VAMPIRE'S SECOND STORY. Of the Relative
Villany of Men and Women.
THE VAMPIRE'S THIRD STORY. Of a High-minded Family.
THE VAMPIRE'S FOURTH STORY. Of A Woman Who Told
THE VAMPIRE'S FIFTH STORY. Of the Thief Who
Laughed and Wept.
THE VAMPIRE'S SIXTH STORY. In Which Three Men
Dispute about a Woman.
THE VAMPIRE'S SEVENTH STORY. Showing the
Exceeding Folly of Many Wise Fools.
THE VAMPIRE'S EIGHTH STORY. Of the Use and Misuse
of Magic Pills.
THE VAMPIRE'S NINTH STORY. Showing That a Man's
Wife Belongs Not to His Body but to His Head.
THE VAMPIRE'S TENTH STORY.[FN#168] Of the
Marvellous Delicacy of Three Queens.
THE VAMPIRE'S ELEVENTH STORY. Which Puzzles Raja
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Captain Sir Richard F. Burton's
Vikram and The Vampire
Classic Hindu Tales of
Adventure, Magic, and Romance
Edited by his Wife
"Les fables, loin de grandir les hommes, la Nature et Dieu,
"One who had eyes saw it; the blind will not understand it.
A poet, who is a boy, he has perceived it; he who understands it
his sire's sire."—Rig-Veda (I.164.16).
The Baital-Pachisi, or Twenty-five Tales of a Baital is the history
of a huge Bat, Vampire, or Evil Spirit which inhabited and animated
dead bodies. It is an old, and thoroughly Hindu, Legend composed in
Sanskrit, and is the germ which culminated in the Arabian Nights, and
which inspired the "Golden Ass" of Apuleius, Boccacio's "Decamerone,"
the "Pentamerone," and all that class of facetious fictitious
The story turns chiefly on a great king named Vikram, the King
Arthur of the East, who in pursuance of his promise to a Jogi or
Magician, brings to him the Baital (Vampire), who is hanging on a
tree. The difficulties King Vikram and his son have in bringing the
Vampire into the presence of the Jogi are truly laughable; and on
this thread is strung a series of Hindu fairy stories, which contain
much interesting information on Indian customs and manners. It also
alludes to that state, which induces Hindu devotees to allow
themselves to be buried alive, and to appear dead for weeks or
months, and then to return to life again; a curious state of mesmeric
catalepsy, into which they work themselves by concentrating the mind
and abstaining from food —a specimen of which I have given a
practical illustration in the Life of Sir Richard Burton.
The following translation is rendered peculiarly; valuable and
interesting by Sir Richard Burton's intimate knowledge of the
language. To all who understand the ways of the East, it is as witty,
and as full of what is popularly called "chaff" as it is possible to
be. There is not a dull page in it, and it will especially please
those who delight in the weird and supernatural, the grotesque, and
the wild life.
My husband only gives eleven of the best tales, as it was thought
the translation would prove more interesting in its abbreviated form.
August 18th, 1893.
"THE genius of Eastern nations," says an established and
respectable authority, "was, from the earliest times, much turned
towards invention and the love of fiction. The Indians, the Persians,
and the Arabians, were all famous for their fables. Amongst the
ancient Greeks we hear of the Ionian and Milesian tales, but they have
now perished, and, from every account we hear of them, appear to have
been loose and indelicate." Similarly, the classical dictionaries
define "Milesiae fabulae" to be "licentious themes," "stories of an
amatory or mirthful nature," or "ludicrous and indecent plays." M.
Deriege seems indeed to confound them with the "Moeurs du Temps"
illustrated with artistic gouaches, when he says, "une de ces fables
milesiennes, rehaussees de peintures, que la corruption romaine
recherchait alors avec une folle ardeur."
My friend, Mr. Richard Charnock, F.A.S.L., more correctly defines
Milesian fables to have been originally " certain tales or novels,
composed by Aristides of Miletus "; gay in matter and graceful in
manner. "They were translated into Latin by the historian Sisenna, the
friend of Atticus, and they had a great success at Rome. Plutarch, in
his life of Crassus, tells us that after the defeat of Carhes
(Carrhae?) some Milesiacs were found in the baggage of the Roman
prisoners. The Greek text; and the Latin translation have long been
lost. The only surviving fable is the tale of Cupid and Psyche,[FN#1]
which Apuleius calls 'Milesius sermo,' and it makes us deeply regret
the disappearance of the others." Besides this there are the remains
of Apollodorus and Conon, and a few traces to be found in Pausanias,
Athenaeus, and the scholiasts.
I do not, therefore, agree with Blair, with the dictionaries, or
with M. Deriege. Miletus, the great maritime city of Asiatic Ionia,
was of old the meeting-place of the East and the West. Here the
Phoenician trader from the Baltic would meet the Hindu wandering to
Intra, from Extra, Gangem; and the Hyperborean would step on shore
side by side with the Nubian and the Aethiop. Here was produced and
published for the use of the then civilized world, the genuine
Oriental apologue, myth and tale combined, which, by amusing narrative
and romantic adventure, insinuates a lesson in morals or in humanity,
of which we often in our days must fail to perceive the drift. The
book of Apuleius, before quoted, is subject to as many discoveries of
recondite meaning as is Rabelais. As regards the licentiousness of the
Milesian fables, this sign of semi-civilization is still inherent in
most Eastern books of the description which we call "light
literature," and the ancestral tale-teller never collects a larger
purse of coppers than when he relates the worst of his "aurei." But
this looseness, resulting from the separation of the sexes, is
accidental, not necessary. The following collection will show that it
can be dispensed with, and that there is such a thing as camparative
purity in Hindu literature. The author, indeed, almost always takes
the trouble to marry his hero and his heroine, and if he cannot find a
priest, he generally adopts an exceedingly left-hand and Caledonian
but legal rite called "gandharbavivaha.[FN#2]"
The work of Apuleius, as ample internal evidence shows, is
borrowed from the East. The groundwork of the tale is the
metamorphosis of Lucius of Corinth into an ass, and the strange
accidents which precede his recovering the human form.
Another old Hindu story-book relates, in the popular fairy-book
style, the wondrous adventures of the hero and demigod, the great
Gandharba-Sena. That son of Indra, who was also the father of
Vikramajit, the subject of this and another collection, offended the
ruler of the firmament by his fondness for a certain nymph, and was
doomed to wander over earth under the form of a donkey. Through the
interposition of the gods, however, he was permitted to become a man
during the hours of darkness, thus comparing with the English legend
Amundeville is lord by day,
But the monk is lord by night.
Whilst labouring under this curse, Gandharba-Sena persuaded the
King of Dhara to give him a daughter in marriage, but it
unfortunately so happened that at the wedding hour he was unable to
show himself in any but asinine shape. After bathing, however, he
proceeded to the assembly, and, hearing songs and music, he resolved
to give them a specimen of his voice.
The guests were filled with sorrow that so beautiful a virgin
should be married to a donkey. They were afraid to express their
feelings to the king, but they could not refrain from smiling,
covering their mouths with their garments. At length some one
interrupted the general silence and said:
"O king, is this the son of Indra? You have found a fine
bridegroom; you are indeed happy; don't delay the marriage; delay is
improper in doing good; we never saw so glorious a wedding! It is true
that we once heard of a camel being married to a jenny-ass; when the
ass, looking up to the camel, said, 'Bless me, what a bridegroom!' and
the camel, hearing the voice of the ass, exclaimed, 'Bless me, what a
musical voice!' In that wedding, however, the bride and the bridegroom
were equal; but in this marriage, that such a bride should have such a
bridegroom is truly wonderful."
Other Brahmans then present said:
"O king, at the marriage hour, in sign of joy the sacred shell is
blown, but thou hast no need of that" (alluding to the donkey's
The women all cried out:
"O my mother![FN#3] what is this? at the time of marriage to have
an ass! What a miserable thing! What! will he give that angelic girl
in wedlock to a donkey?"
At length Gandharba-Sena, addressing the king in Sanskrit, urged
him to perform his promise. He reminded his future father-in-law that
there is no act more meritorious than speaking truth; that the mortal
frame is a mere dress, and that wise men never estimate the value of a
person by his clothes. He added that he was in that shape from the
curse of his sire, and that during the night he had the body of a man.
Of his being the son of Indra there could be no doubt.
Hearing the donkey thus speak Sanskrit, for it was never known
that an ass could discourse in that classical tongue, the minds of
the people were changed, and they confessed that, although he had an
asinine form he was unquestionably the son of Indra. The king,
therefore, gave him his daughter in marriage.[FN#4] The metamorphosis
brings with it many misfortunes and strange occurrences, and it lasts
till Fate in the author's hand restores the hero to his former shape
Gandharba-Sena is a quasi-historical personage, who lived in the
century preceding the Christian era. The story had, therefore, ample
time to reach the ears of the learned African Apuleius, who was born
The Baital-Pachisi, or Twenty-five (tales of a) Baital[FN#5] —a
Vampire or evil spirit which animates dead bodies — is an old and
thoroughly Hindu repertory. It is the rude beginning of that
fictitious history which ripened to the Arabian Nights'
Entertainments, and which, fostered by the genius of Boccaccio,
produced the romance of the chivalrous days, and its last
development, the novel — that prose-epic of modern Europe.
Composed in Sanskrit, "the language of the gods," alias the Latin
of India, it has been translated into all the Prakrit or vernacular
and modern dialects of the great peninsula. The reason why it has not
found favour with the Moslems is doubtless the highly polytheistic
spirit which pervades it; moreover, the Faithful had already a
specimen of that style of composition. This was the Hitopadesa, or
Advice of a Friend, which, as a line in its introduction informs us,
was borrowed from an older book, the Panchatantra, or Five Chapters.
It is a collection of apologues recited by a learned Brahman, Vishnu
Sharma by name, for the edification of his pupils, the sons of an
Indian Raja. They have been adapted to or translated into a number of
languages, notably into Pehlvi and Persian, Syriac and Turkish, Greek
and Latin, Hebrew and Arabic. And as the Fables of Pilpay,[FN#6] are
generally known, by name at least, to European litterateurs. .
Voltaire remarks,[FN#7] "Quand on fait reflexion que presque toute la
terre a ete infatuee de pareils comes, et qu'ils ont fait l'education
du genre humain, on trouve les fables de Pilpay, Lokman, d'Esope bien
raisonnables." These tales, detached, but strung together by
artificial means— pearls with a thread drawn through them—are
manifest precursors of the Decamerone, or Ten Days. A modern Italian
critic describes the now classical fiction as a collection of one
hundred of those novels which Boccaccio is believed to have read out
at the court of Queen Joanna of Naples, and which later in life were
by him assorted together by a most simple and ingenious contrivance.
But the great Florentine invented neither his stories nor his " plot,"
if we may so call it. He wrote in the middle of the fourteenth century
(1344-8) when the West had borrowed many things from the East,
rhymes[FN#8] and romance, lutes and drums, alchemy and
knight-errantry. Many of the "Novelle" are, as Orientalists well
know, to this day sung and recited almost textually by the wandering
tale-tellers, bards, and rhapsodists of Persia and Central Asia.
The great kshatriya,(soldier) king Vikramaditya,[FN#9] or
Vikramarka, meaning the "Sun of Heroism," plays in India the part of
King Arthur, and of Harun al-Rashid further West. He is a
semi-historical personage. The son of Gandharba-Sena the donkey and
the daughter of the King of Dhara, he was promised by his father the
strength of a thousand male elephants. When his sire died, his
grandfather, the deity Indra, resolved that the babe should not be
born, upon which his mother stabbed herself. But the tragic event duly
happening during the ninth month, Vikram came into the world by
himself, and was carried to Indra, who pitied and adopted him, and
gave him a good education.
The circumstances of his accession to the throne, as will presently
appear, are differently told. Once, however, made King of Malaya, the
modern Malwa, a province of Western Upper India, he so distinguished
himself that the Hindu fabulists, with their usual brave kind of
speaking, have made him "bring the whole earth under the shadow of one
The last ruler of the race of Mayura, which reigned 318 years, was
Raja-pal. He reigned 25 years, but giving himself up to effeminacy,
his country was invaded by Shakaditya, a king from the highlands of
Kumaon. Vikramaditya, in the fourteenth year of his reign, pretended
to espouse the cause of Raja-pal, attacked and destroyed Shakaditya,
and ascended the throne of Delhi. His capital was Avanti, or Ujjayani,
the modern Ujjain. It was 13 kos (26 miles) long by 18 miles wide, an
area of 468 square miles, but a trifle in Indian History. He obtained
the title of Shakari, "foe of the Shakas," the Sacae or Scythians, by
his victories over that redoubtable race. In the Kali Yug, or Iron
Age, he stands highest amongst the Hindu kings as the patron of
learning. Nine persons under his patronage, popularly known as the
"Nine Gems of Science," hold in India the honourable position of the
Seven Wise Men of Greece.
These learned persons wrote works in the eighteen original dialects
from which, say the Hindus, all the languages of the earth have been
derived.[FN#10] Dhanwantari enlightened the world upon the subjects of
medicine and of incantations. Kshapanaka treated the primary elements.
Amara-Singha compiled a Sanskrit dictionary and a philosophical
treatise. Shankubetalabhatta composed comments, and Ghatakarpara a
poetical work of no great merit. The books of Mihira are not
mentioned. Varaha produced two works on astrology and one on
arithmetic. And Bararuchi introduced certain improvements in grammar,
commented upon the incantations, and wrote a poem in praise of King
But the most celebrated of all the patronized ones was Kalidasa.
His two dramas, Sakuntala,[FN#11] and Vikram and Urvasi,[FN#12] have
descended to our day; besides which he produced a poem on the seasons,
a work on astronomy, a poetical history of the gods, and many other
Vikramaditya established the Sambat era, dating from A.C. 56.
After a long, happy, and glorious reign, he lost his life in a war
with Shalivahana, King of Pratisthana. That monarch also left behind
him an era called the " Shaka," beginning with A.D. 78. It is
employed, even now, by the Hindus in recording their births,
marriages, and similar occasions.
King Vikramaditya was succeeded by his infant son Vikrama-Sena,
and father and son reigned over a period of 93 years. At last the
latter was supplanted by a devotee named Samudra-pala, who entered
into his body by miraculous means. The usurper reigned 24 years and 2
months, and the throne of Delhi continued in the hands of his sixteen
successors, who reigned 641 years and 3 months. Vikrama-pala,, the
last, was slain in battle by Tilaka-chandra, King of
It is not pretended that the words of these Hindu tales are
preserved to the letter. The question about the metamorphosis of cats
into tigers, for instance, proceeded from a Gem of Learning in a
university much nearer home than Gaur. Similarly the learned and still
living Mgr. Gaume (Traite du Saint-Esprit, p.. 81) joins Camerarius in
the belief that serpents bite women rather than men. And he quotes
(p.. 192) Cornelius a Lapide, who informs us that the leopard is the
produce of a lioness with a hyena or a bard..
The merit of the old stories lies in their suggestiveness and in
their general applicability. I have ventured to remedy the conciseness
of their language, and to clothe the skeleton with flesh and blood.
To My Uncle,
ROBERT BAGSHAW, OF DOVERCOURT,
That Will Remind Him Of A Land Which
He Knows So Well,
Are Affectionately Inscribed.
VIKRAM AND THE VAMPIRE.
The sage Bhavabhuti—Eastern teller of these tales—after
making his initiatory and propitiatory conge to Ganesha, Lord of
Incepts, informs the reader that this book is a string of fine pearls
to be hung round the neck of human intelligence; a fragrant flower to
be borne on the turband of mental wisdom; a jewel of pure gold, which
becomes the brow of all supreme minds; and a handful of powdered
rubies, whose tonic effects will appear palpably upon the mental
digestion of every patient. Finally, that by aid of the lessons
inculcated in the following pages, man will pass happily through this
world into the state of absorption, where fables will be no longer
He then teaches us how Vikramaditya the Brave became King of
Some nineteen centuries ago, the renowned city of Ujjayani
witnessed the birth of a prince to whom was given the gigantic name
Vikramaditya. Even the Sanskrit-speaking people, who are not usually
pressed for time, shortened it to "Vikram", and a little further West
it would infallibly have been docked down to "Vik".
Vikram was the second son of an old king Gandharba-Sena,
concerning whom little favourable has reached posterity, except that
he became an ass, married four queens, and had by them six sons, each
of whom was more learned and powerful than the other. It so happened
that in course of time the father died. Thereupon his eldest heir, who
was known as Shank, succeeded to the carpet of Rajaship, and was
instantly murdered by Vikram, his "scorpion", the hero of the
By this act of vigour and manly decision, which all younger-
brother princes should devoutly imitate, Vikram having obtained the
title of Bir, or the Brave, made himself Raja. He began to rule well,
and the gods so favoured him that day by day his dominions increased.
At length he became lord of all India, and having firmly established
his government, he instituted an era—an uncommon feat for a mere
monarch, especially when hereditary.
The steps,[FN#16] says the historian, which he took to arrive at
that pinnacle of grandeur, were these:
The old King calling his two grandsons Bhartari-hari and
Vikramaditya, gave them good counsel respecting their future
learning. They were told to master everything, a certain way not to
succeed in anything. They were diligently to learn grammar, the
Scriptures, and all the religious sciences. They were to become
familiar with military tactics, international law, and music, the
riding of horses and elephants— especially the latter—the driving of
chariots, and the use of the broadsword, the bow, and the mogdars or
Indian clubs. They were ordered to be skilful in all kinds of games,
in leaping and running, in besieging forts, in forming and breaking
bodies of troops; they were to endeavour to excel in every princely
quality, to be cunning in ascertaining the power of an enemy, how to
make war, to perform journeys, to sit in the presence of the nobles,
to separate the different sides of a question, to form alliances, to
distinguish between the innocent and the guilty, to assign proper
punishments to the wicked, to exercise authority with perfect justice,
and to be liberal. The boys were then sent to school, and were placed
under the care of excellent teachers, where they became truly famous.
Whilst under pupilage, the eldest was allowed all the power necessary
to obtain a knowledge of royal affairs, and he was not invested with
the regal office till in these preparatory steps he had given full
satisfaction to his subjects, who expressed high approval of his
The two brothers often conversed on the duties of kings, when the
great Vikramaditya gave the great Bhartari-hari the following
"As Indra, during the four rainy months, fills the earth with
water, so a king should replenish his treasury with money. As Surya
the sun, in warming the earth eight months, does not scorch it, so a
king, in drawing revenues from his people, ought not to oppress them.
As Vayu, the wind, surrounds and fills everything, so the king by his
officers and spies should become acquainted with the affairs and
circumstances of his whole people. As Yama judges men without
partiality or prejudice, and punishes the guilty, so should a king
chastise, without favour, all offenders. As Varuna, the regent of
water, binds with his pasha or divine noose his enemies, so let a king
bind every malefactor safely in prison. As Chandra,[FN#18] the moon,
by his cheering light gives pleasure to all, thus should a king, by
gifts and generosity, make his people happy. And as Prithwi, the
earth, sustains all alike, so should a king feel an equal affection
and forbearance towards every one."
Become a monarch, Vikram meditated deeply upon what is said of
monarchs:—"A king is fire and air; he is both sun and moon; he is
the god of criminal justice; he is the genius of wealth; he is the
regent of water; he is the lord of the firmament; he is a powerful
divinity who appears in human shape." He reflected with some
satisfaction that the scriptures had made him absolute, had left the
lives and properties of all his subjects to his arbitrary will, had
pronounced him to be an incarnate deity, and had threatened to punish
with death even ideas derogatory to his honour.
He punctually observed all the ordinances laid down by the author
of the Niti, or institutes of government. His night and day were
divided into sixteen pahars or portions, each one hour and a half,
and they were disposed of as follows:—
Before dawn Vikram was awakened by a servant appointed to this
special duty. He swallowed— a thing allowed only to a khshatriya or
warrior— Mithridatic every morning on the saliva[FN#19], and he made
the cooks taste every dish before he ate of it. As soon as he had
risen, the pages in waiting repeated his splendid qualities, and as he
left his sleeping-room in full dress, several Brahmans rehearsed the
praises of the gods. Presently he bathed, worshipped his guardian
deity, again heard hymns, drank a little water, and saw alms
distributed to the poor. He ended this watch by auditing his accounts.
Next entering his court, he placed himself amidst the assembly. He
was always armed when he received strangers, and he caused even women
to be searched for concealed weapons. He was surrounded by so many
spies and so artful, that of a thousand, no two ever told the same
tale. At the levee, on his right sat his relations, the Brahmans, and
men of distinguished birth. The other castes were on the left, and
close to him stood the ministers and those whom he delighted to
consult. Afar in front gathered the bards chanting the praises of the
gods and of the king; also the charioteers, elephanteers, horsemen,
and soldiers of valour. Amongst the learned men in those assemblies
there were ever some who were well instructed in all the scriptures,
and others who had studied in one particular school of philosophy, and
were acquainted only with the works on divine wisdom, or with those on
justice, civil and criminal, on the arts, mineralogy or the practice
of physic; also persons cunning in all kinds of customs;
riding-masters, dancing- masters, teachers of good behaviour,
examiners, tasters, mimics, mountebanks, and others, who all attended
the court and awaited the king's commands. He here pronounced judgment
in suits of appeal. His poets wrote about him:
The lord of lone splendour an instant suspends
His course at mid~noon, ere he westward descends;
And brief are the moments our young monarch knows,
Devoted to pleasure or paid to repose!
Before the second sandhya,[FN#20] or noon, about the beginning of
the third watch, he recited the names of the gods, bathed, and broke
his fast in his private room; then rising from food, he was amused by
singers and dancing girls. The labours of the day now became lighter.
After eating he retired, repeating the name of his guardian deity,
visited the temples, saluted the gods conversed with the priests, and
proceeded to receive and to distribute presents. Fifthly, he discussed
political questions with his ministers and councillors.
On the announcement of the herald that it was the sixth watch—
about 2 or 3 P.M.—Vikram allowed himself to follow his own
inclinations, to regulate his family, and to transact business of a
private and personal nature.
After gaining strength by rest, he proceeded to review his troops,
examining the men, saluting the officers, and holding military
councils. At sunset he bathed a third time and performed the five
sacraments of listening to a prelection of the Veda; making oblations
to the manes; sacrificing to Fire in honour of the deities; giving
rice to dumb creatures; and receiving guests with due ceremonies. He
spent the evening amidst a select company of wise, learned, and pious
men, conversing on different subjects, and reviewing the business of
The night was distributed with equal care. During the first portion
Vikram received the reports which his spies and envoys, dressed in
every disguise, brought to him about his enemies. Against the latter
he ceased not to use the five arts, namely—dividing the kingdom,
bribes, mischief-making, negotiations, and brute-force— especially
preferring the first two and the last. His forethought and prudence
taught him to regard all his nearest neighbours and their allies as
hostile. The powers beyond those natural enemies he considered
friendly because they were the foes of his foes. And all the remoter
nations he looked upon as neutrals, in a transitional or provisional
state as it were, till they became either his neighbours' neighbours,
or his own neighbours, that is to say, his friends or his foes.
This important duty finished he supped, and at the end of the third
watch he retired to sleep, which was not allowed to last beyond three
hours. In the sixth watch he arose and purified himself. The seventh
was devoted to holding private consultations with his ministers, and
to furnishing the officers of government with requisite instructions.
The eighth or last watch was spent with the Purohita or priest, and
with Brahmans, hailing the dawn with its appropriate rites; he then
bathed, made the customary offerings, and prayed in some unfrequented
place near pure water.
And throughout these occupations he bore in mind the duty of
kings, namely—to pursue every object till it be accomplished; to
succour all dependents, and hospitably to receive guests, however
numerous. He was generous to his subjects respecting taxes, and kind
of speech; yet he was inexorable as death in the punishment of
offenses. He rarely hunted, and he visited his pleasure gardens only
on stated days. He acted in his own dominions with justice; he
chastised foreign foes with rigour; he behaved generously to Brahmans,
and he avoided favouritism amongst his friends. In war he never slew a
suppliant, a spectator, a person asleep or undressed, or anyone that
showed fear. Whatever country he conquered, offerings were presented
to its gods, and effects and money were given to the reverends. But
what benefited him most was his attention to the creature comforts of
the nine Gems of Science: those eminent men ate and drank themselves
into fits of enthusiasm, and ended by immortalizing their patron's
Become Vikram the Great he established his court at a delightful
and beautiful location rich in the best of water. The country was
difficult of access, and artificially made incapable of supporting a
host of invaders, but four great roads met near the city. The capital
was surrounded with durable ramparts, having gates of defence, and
near it was a mountain fortress, under the especial charge of a great
The metropolis was well garrisoned and provisioned, and it
surrounded the royal palace, a noble building without as well as
within. Grandeur seemed embodied there, and Prosperity had made it
her own. The nearer ground, viewed from the terraces and pleasure
pavilions, was a lovely mingling of rock and mountain, plain and
valley, field and fallow, crystal lake and glittering stream. The
banks of the winding Lavana were fringed with meads whose herbage,
pearly with morning dew, afforded choicest grazing for the sacred cow,
and were dotted with perfumed clumps of Bo-trees, tamarinds, and holy
figs: in one place Vikram planted 100,000 in a single orchard and gave
them to his spiritual advisers. The river valley separated the stream
from a belt of forest growth which extended to a hill range, dark with
impervious jungle, and cleared here and there for the cultivator's
village. Behind it, rose another sub-range, wooded with a lower bush
and already blue with air, whilst in the background towered range upon
range, here rising abruptly into points and peaks, there ramp-shaped
or wall- formed, with sheer descents, and all of light azure hue
adorned with glories of silver and gold.
After reigning for some years, Vikram the Brave found himself at
the age of thirty, a staid and sober middle-aged man, He had several
sons—daughters are naught in India—by his several wives, and he had
some paternal affection for nearly all—except of course, for his
eldest son, a youth who seemed to conduct himself as though he had a
claim to the succession. In fact, the king seemed to have taken up his
abode for life at Ujjayani, when suddenly he bethought himself, "I
must visit those countries of whose names I am ever hearing." The fact
is, he had determined to spy out in disguise the lands of all his
foes, and to find the best means of bringing against them his
* * * * * *
We now learn how Bhartari Raja becomes Regent of Ujjayani.
Having thus resolved, Vikram the Brave gave the government into
the charge of a younger brother, Bhartari Raja, and in the garb of a
religious mendicant, accompanied by Dharma Dhwaj, his second son, a
youth bordering on the age of puberty, he began to travel from city to
city, and from forest to forest.
The Regent was of a settled melancholic turn of mind, having lost
in early youth a very peculiar wife. One day, whilst out hunting, he
happened to pass a funeral pyre, upon which a Brahman's widow had
just become Sati (a holy woman) with the greatest fortitude. On his
return home he related the adventure to Sita Rani, his spouse, and she
at once made reply that virtuous women die with their husbands, killed
by the fire of grief, not by the flames of the pile. To prove her
truth the prince, after an affectionate farewell, rode forth to the
chase, and presently sent back the suite with his robes torn and
stained, to report his accidental death. Sita perished upon the spot,
and the widower remained inconsolable—for a time.
He led the dullest of lives, and took to himself sundry spouses,
all equally distinguished for birth, beauty, and modesty. Like his
brother, he performed all the proper devoirs of a Raja, rising before
the day to finish his ablutions, to worship the gods, and to do due
obeisance to the Brahmans. He then ascended the throne, to judge his
people according to the Shastra, carefully keeping in subjection lust,
anger, avarice, folly, drunkenness, and pride; preserving himself from
being seduced by the love of gaming and of the chase; restraining his
desire for dancing, singing, and playing on musical instruments, and
refraining from sleep during daytime, from wine, from molesting men of
worth, from dice, from putting human beings to death by artful means,
from useless travelling, and from holding any one guilty without the
commission of a crime. His levees were in a hall decently splendid,
and he was distinguished only by an umbrella of peacock's feathers; he
received all complainants, petitioners, and presenters of offenses
with kind looks and soft words. He united to himself the seven or
eight wise councillors, and the sober and virtuous secretary that
formed the high cabinet of his royal brother, and they met in some
secret lonely spot, as a mountain, a terrace, a bower or a forest,
whence women, parrots, and other talkative birds were carefully
And at the end of this useful and somewhat laborious day, he
retired to his private apartments, and, after listening to spiritual
songs and to soft music, he fell asleep. Sometimes he would summon
his brother's "Nine Gems of Science," and give ear to their learned
discourses. But it was observed that the viceroy reserved this
exercise for nights when he was troubled with insomnia—the words of
wisdom being to him an infallible remedy for that disorder.
Thus passed onwards his youth, doing nothing that it could desire,
forbidden all pleasures because they were unprincely, and working in
the palace harder than in the pauper's hut. Having, however,
fortunately for himself, few predilections and no imagination, he
began to pride himself upon being a philosopher. Much business from
an early age had dulled his wits, which were never of the most
brilliant; and in the steadily increasing torpidity of his spirit, he
traced the germs of that quietude which forms the highest happiness of
man in this storm of matter called the world. He therefore allowed
himself but one friend of his soul. He retained, I have said, his
brother's seven or eight ministers; he was constant in attendance upon
the Brahman priests who officiated at the palace, and who kept the
impious from touching sacred property; and he was courteous to the
commander-in-chief who directed his warriors, to the officers of
justice who inflicted punishment upon offenders, and to the lords of
towns, varying in number from one to a thousand. But he placed an
intimate of his own in the high position of confidential councillor,
the ambassador to regulate war and peace.
Mahi-pala was a person of noble birth, endowed with shining
abilities, popular, dexterous in business, acquainted with foreign
parts, famed for eloquence and intrepidity, and as Menu the Lawgiver
advises, remarkably handsome.
Bhartari Raja, as I have said, became a quietist and a philosopher.
But Kama,[FN#21] the bright god who exerts his sway over the three
worlds, heaven and earth and grewsome Hades,[FN#22] had marked out the
prince once more as the victim of his blossom- tipped shafts and his
flowery bow. How, indeed, could he hope to escape the doom which has
fallen equally upon Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and
dreadful Shiva the Three-eyed Destroyer[FN#23]?
By reason of her exceeding beauty, her face was a full moon
shining in the clearest sky; her hair was the purple cloud of autumn
when, gravid with rain, it hangs low over earth; and her complexion
mocked the pale waxen hue of the large-flowered jasmine. Her eyes were
those of the timid antelope; her lips were as red as those of the
pomegranate's bud, and when they opened, from them distilled a
fountain of ambrosia. Her neck was like a pigeon's; her hand the pink
lining of the conch-shell; her waist a leopard's; her feet the softest
lotuses. In a word, a model of grace and loveliness was Dangalah Rani,
Raja Bhartari's last and youngest wife.
The warrior laid down his arms before her; the politician spoke out
every secret in her presence. The religious prince would have
slaughtered a cow—that sole unforgivable sin—to save one of her
eyelashes: the absolute king would not drink a cup of water without
her permission; the staid philosopher, the sober quietist, to win from
her the shadow of a smile, would have danced before her like a
singing-girl. So desperately enamoured became Bhartari Raja.
It is written, however, that love, alas! breeds not love; and so it
happened to the Regent. The warmth of his affection, instead of
animating his wife, annoyed her; his protestations wearied her; his
vows gave her the headache; and his caresses were a colic that made
her blood run cold. Of course, the prince perceived nothing, being
lost in wonder and admiration of the beauty's coyness and coquetry.
And as women must give away their hearts, whether asked or not, so the
lovely Dangalah Rani lost no time in lavishing all the passion of her
idle soul upon Mahi-pala, the handsome ambassador of peace and war. By
this means the three were happy and were contented; their felicity,
however, being built on a rotten foundation, could not long endure. It
soon ended in the following extraordinary way.
In the city of Ujjayani,[FN#24] within sight of the palace, dwelt a
Brahman and his wife, who, being old and poor, and having nothing
else to do, had applied themselves to the practice of austere
devotion.[FN#25] They fasted and refrained from drink, they stood on
their heads and held their arms for weeks in the air; they prayed till
their knees were like pads; they disciplined themselves with scourges
of wire; and they walked about unclad in the cold season, and in
summer they sat within a circle of flaming wood, till they became the
envy and admiration of all the plebeian gods that inhabit the lower
heavens. In fine, as a reward for their exceeding piety, the venerable
pair received at the hands of a celestial messenger an apple of the
tree Kalpavriksha— a fruit which has the virtue of conferring eternal
life upon him that tastes it.
Scarcely had the god disappeared, when the Brahman, opening his
toothless mouth, prepared to eat the fruit of immortality. Then his
wife addressed him in these words, shedding copious tears the while:
"To die, O man, is a passing pain; to be poor is an interminable
anguish. Surely our present lot is the penalty of some great crime
committed by us in a past state of being.[FN#26] Callest thou this
state life? Better we die at once, and so escape the woes of the
Hearing these words, the Brahman sat undecided, with open jaws and
eyes fixed upon the apple. Presently he found tongue: "I have accepted
the fruit, and have brought it here; but having heard thy speech, my
intellect hath wasted away; now I will do whatever thou pointest out."
The wife resumed her discourse, which had been interrupted by a
more than usually copious flow of tears. "Moreover, O husband, we are
old, and what are the enjoyments of the stricken in years? Truly quoth
Die loved in youth, not hated in age.
If that fruit could have restored thy dimmed eyes, and deaf ears,
and blunted taste, and warmth of love, I had not spoken to thee
After which the Brahman threw away the apple, to the great joy of
his wife, who felt a natural indignation at the prospect of seeing
her goodman become immortal, whilst she still remained subject to the
laws of death; but she concealed this motive in the depths of her
thought, enlarging, as women are apt to do, upon everything but the
truth. And she spoke with such success, that the priest was about to
toss in his rage the heavenly fruit into the fire, reproaching the
gods as if by sending it they had done him an injury. Then the wife
snatched it out of his hand, and telling him it was too precious to be
wasted, bade him arise and gird his loins and wend him to the Regent's
palace, and offer him the fruit—as King Vikram was absent—with a
right reverend brahmanical benediction. She concluded with impressing
upon her unworldly husband the necessity of requiring a large sum of
money as a return for his inestimable gift. "By this means, "she said,
"thou mayst promote thy present and future welfare.[FN#27]"
Then the Brahman went forth, and standing in the presence of the
Raja, told him all things touching the fruit, concluding with "O,
mighty prince! vouchsafe to accept this tribute, and bestow wealth
upon me. I shall be happy in your living long!"
Bhartari Raja led the supplicant into an inner strongroom, where
stood heaps of the finest gold-dust, and bade him carry away all that
he could; this the priest did, not forgetting to fill even his
eloquent and toothless mouth with the precious metal. Having
dismissed the devotee groaning under the burden, the Regent entered
the apartments of his wives, and having summoned the beautiful Queen
Dangalah Rani, gave her the fruit, and said, "Eat this, light of my
eyes! This fruit—joy of my heart!—will make thee everlastingly young
The pretty queen, placing both hands upon her husband's bosom,
kissed his eyes and lips, and sweetly smiling on his face—for great
is the guile of women—whispered, "Eat it thyself, dear one, or at
least share it with me; for what is life and what is youth without
the presence of those we love?" But the Raja, whose heart was melted
by these unusual words, put her away tenderly, and, having explained
that the fruit would serve for only one person, departed.
Whereupon the pretty queen, sweetly smiling as before, slipped the
precious present into her pocket. When the Regent was transacting
business in the hall of audience she sent for the ambassador who
regulated war and peace, and presented him with the apple in a manner
at least as tender as that with which it had been offered to her.
Then the ambassador, after slipping the fruit into his pocket also,
retired from the presence of the pretty queen, and meeting Lakha, one
of the maids of honour, explained to her its wonderful power, and gave
it to her as a token of his love. But the maid of honour, being an
ambitious girl, determined that the fruit was a fit present to set
before the Regent in the absence of the King. Bhartari Raja accepted
it, bestowed on her great wealth, and dismissed her with many thanks.
He then took up the apple and looked at it with eyes brimful of
tears, for he knew the whole extent of his misfortune. His heart
ached, he felt a loathing for the world, and he said with sighs and
"Of what value are these delusions of wealth and affection, whose
sweetness endures for a moment and becomes eternal bitterness? Love
is like the drunkard's cup: delicious is the first drink, palling are
the draughts that succeed it, and most distasteful are the dregs. What
is life but a restless vision of imaginary pleasures and of real
pains, from which the only waking is the terrible day of death? The
affection of this world is of no use, since, in consequence of it, we
fall at last into hell. For which reason it is best to practice the
austerities of religion, that the Deity may bestow upon us hereafter
that happiness which he refuses to us here!"
Thus did Bhartari Raja determine to abandon the world. But before
setting out for the forest, he could not refrain from seeing the
queen once more, so hot was the flame which Kama had kindled in his
heart. He therefore went to the apartments of his women, and having
caused Dangalah Rani to be summoned, he asked her what had become of
the fruit which he had given to her. She answered that, according to
his command, she had eaten it. Upon which the Regent showed her the
apple, and she beholding it stood aghast, unable to make any reply.
The Raja gave careful orders for her beheading; he then went out, and
having had the fruit washed, ate it. He quitted the throne to be a
jogi, or religious mendicant, and without communicating with any one
departed into the jungle. There he became such a devotee that death
had no power over him, and he is wandering still. But some say that he
was duly absorbed into the essence of the Deity.
* * * * * *
We are next told how the valiant Vikram returned to his own
Thus Vikram's throne remained empty. When the news reached King
Indra, Regent of the Lower Firmament and Protector of Earthly
Monarchs, he sent Prithwi Pala, a fierce giant,[FN#29] to defend the
city of Ujjayani till such time as its lawful master might reappear,
and the guardian used to keep watch and ward night and day over his
In less than a year the valorous Raja Vikram became thoroughly
tired of wandering about the woods half dressed: now suffering from
famine, then exposed to the attacks of wild beasts, and at all times
very ill at ease. He reflected also that he was not doing his duty to
his wives and children; that the heir-apparent would probably make the
worst use of the parental absence; and finally, that his subjects,
deprived of his fatherly care, had been left in the hands of a man
who, for ought he could say, was not worthy of the high trust. He had
also spied out all the weak points of friend and foe. Whilst these and
other equally weighty considerations were hanging about the Raja's
mind, he heard a rumour of the state of things spread abroad; that
Bhartari, the regent, having abdicated his throne, had gone away into
the forest. Then quoth Vikram to his son,"We have ended our
wayfarings, now let us turn our steps homewards!"
The gong was striking the mysterious hour of midnight as the king
and the young prince approached the principal gate. And they were
pushing through it when a monstrous figure rose up before them and
called out with a fearful voice, "Who are ye, and where are ye going ?
Stand and deliver your names!"
"I am Raja Vikram," rejoined the king, half choked with rage, "and
I am come to mine own city. Who art thou that darest to stop or stay
"That question is easily answered," cried Prithwi Pala the giant,
in his roaring voice; "the gods have sent me to protect Ujjayani. If
thou be really Raja Vikram, prove thyself a man: first fight with me,
and then return to thine own."
The warrior king cried "Sadhu!" wanting nothing better. He girt his
girdle tight round his loins, summoned his opponent into the empty
space beyond the gate, told him to stand on guard, and presently
began to devise some means of closing with or running in upon him.
The giant's fists were large as watermelons, and his knotted arms
whistled through the air like falling trees, threatening fatal blows.
Besides which the Raja's head scarcely reached the giant's stomach,
and the latter, each time he struck out, whooped so abominably loud,
that no human nerves could remain unshaken.
At last Vikram's good luck prevailed. The giant's left foot
slipped, and the hero, seizing his antagonist's other leg, began to
trip him up. At the same moment the young prince, hastening to his
parent's assistance, jumped viciously upon the enemy's naked toes. By
their united exertions they brought him to the ground, when the son
sat down upon his stomach, making himself as weighty as he well
could, whilst the father, climbing up to the monster's throat, placed
himself astride upon it, and pressing both thumbs upon his eyes,
threatened to blind him if he would not yield.
Then the giant, modifying the bellow of his voice, cried out—
"O Raja, thou hast overthrown me, and I grant thee thy life."
"Surely thou art mad, monster," replied the king, in jeering tone,
half laughing, half angry. "To whom grantest thou life? If I desire
it I can kill thee; how, then, cost thou talk about granting me my
"Vikram of Ujjayani," said the giant, "be not too proud! I will
save thee from a nearly impending death. Only hearken to the tale
which I have to tell thee, and use thy judgment, and act upon it. So
shalt thou rule the world free from care, and live without danger,
and die happily."
"Proceed," quoth the Raja, after a moment's thought, dismounting
from the giant's throat, and beginning to listen with all his ears.
The giant raised himself from the ground, and when in a sitting
posture, began in solemn tones to speak as follows:
"In short, the history of the matter is, that three men were born
in this same city of Ujjayani, in the same lunar mansion, in the same
division of the great circle described upon the ecliptic, and in the
same period of time. You, the first, were born in the house of a
king. The second was an oilman's son, who was slain by the third, a
jogi, or anchorite, who kills all he can, wafting the sweet scent of
human sacrifice to the nostrils of Durga, goddess of destruction.
Moreover, the holy man, after compassing the death of the oilman's
son, has suspended him head downwards from a mimosa tree in a
cemetery. He is now anxiously plotting thy destruction. He hath
murdered his own child— "
"And how came an anchorite to have a child?" asked Raja Vikram,
"That is what I am about to tell thee," replied the giant. "In the
good days of thy generous father, Gandharba-Sena, as the court was
taking its pleasure in the forest, they saw a devotee, or rather a
devotee's head, protruding from a hole in the ground. The white ants
had surrounded his body with a case of earth, and had made their home
upon his skin. All kinds of insects and small animals crawled up and
down the face, yet not a muscle moved. Wasps had hung their nests to
its temples, and scorpions wandered in and out of the matted and
clotted hair; yet the hermit felt them not. He spoke to no one; he
received no gifts; and had it not been for the opening of his
nostrils, as he continually inhaled the pungent smoke of a thorn fire,
man would have deemed him dead. Such were his religious austerities.
"Thy father marvelled much at the sight, and rode home in profound
thought. That evening, as he sat in the hall of audience, he could
speak of nothing but the devotee; and his curiosity soon rose to such
a pitch, that he proclaimed about the city a reward of one hundred
gold pieces to any one that could bring to court this anchorite of his
own free will.
"Shortly afterwards, Vasantasena, a singing and dancing girl more
celebrated for wit and beauty than for sagesse or discretion,
appeared before thy sire, and offered for the petty inducement of a
gold bangle to bring the anchorite into the palace, carrying a baby
on his shoulder.
"The king hearing her speak was astonished, gave her a betel leaf
in token that he held her to her promise, and permitted her to
depart, which she did with a laugh of triumph.
"Vasantasena went directly to the jungle, where she found the
pious man faint with thirst, shriveled with hunger, and half dead
with heat and cold. She cautiously put out the fire. Then, having
prepared a confection, she approached from behind and rubbed upon his
lips a little of the sweetmeat, which he licked up with great relish.
Thereupon she made more and gave it to him. After two days of this
generous diet he gained some strength, and on the third, as he felt a
finger upon his mouth, he opened his eyes and said, "Why hast thou
"The girl, who had her story in readiness, replied: "I am the
daughter of a deity, and have practiced religious observances in the
heavenly regions. I have now come into this forest!" And the devotee,
who began to think how much more pleasant is such society than
solitude, asked her where her hut was, and requested to be led there.
"Then Vasantasena, having unearthed the holy man and compelled him
to purify himself, led him to the abode which she had caused to be
built for herself in the wood. She explained its luxuries by the
nature of her vow, which bound her to indulge in costly apparel, in
food with six flavours, and in every kind of indulgence.[FN#30] In
course of time the hermit learned to follow her example; he gave up
inhaling smoke, and he began to eat and drink as a daily occupation.
"At length Kama began to trouble him. Briefly the saint and
saintess were made man and wife, by the simple form of matrimony
called the Gandharba-vivaha,[FN#31] and about ten months afterwards a
son was born to them. Thus the anchorite came to have a child.
"Remained Vasantasena's last feat. Some months passed: then she
said to the devotee her husband, 'Oh saint! let us now, having
finished our devotions, perform a pilgrimage to some sacred place,
that all the sins of our bodies may be washed away, after which we
will die and depart into everlasting happiness.' Cajoled by these
speeches, the hermit mounted his child upon his shoulder and followed
her where she went—directly into Raja Gandharba-Sena's palace.
"When the king and the ministers and the officers and the courtiers
saw Vasantasena, and her spouse carrying the baby, they recognized
her from afar. The Raja exclaimed, 'Lo! this is the very singing girl
who went forth to bring back the devotee. 'And all replied: 'O great
monarch! thou speakest truly; this is the very same woman. And be
pleased to observe that whatever things she, having asked leave to
undertake, went forth to do, all these she hath done!' Then gathering
around her they asked her all manner of questions, as if the whole
matter had been the lightest and the most laughable thing in the
"But the anchorite, having heard the speeches of the king and his
courtiers, thought to himself, 'They have done this for the purpose
of taking away the fruits of my penance.' Cursing them all with
terrible curses, and taking up his child, he left the hall. Thence he
went to the forest, slaughtered the innocent, and began to practice
austerities with a view to revenge that hour, and having slain his
child, he will attempt thy life. His prayers have been heard. In the
first place they deprived thee of thy father. Secondly, they cast
enmity between thee and thy brother, thus dooming him to an untimely
end. Thirdly, they are now working thy ruin. The anchorite's design is
to offer up a king and a king's son to his patroness Durga, and by
virtue of such devotional act he will obtain the sovereignty of the
"But I have promised, O Vikram, to save thee, if such be the will
of Fortune, from impending destruction. Therefore hearken well unto
my words. Distrust them that dwell amongst the dead, and remember that
it is lawful and right to strike off his head that would slay thee. So
shalt thou rule the universal earth, and leave behind thee an immortal
Suddenly Prithwi Pala, the giant, ceased speaking, and
disappeared. Vikram and his son then passed through the city gates,
feeling their limbs to be certain that no bones were broken, and
thinking over the scene that had occurred.
* * * * * *
We now are informed how the valiant King Vikram met with the
It was the spring season when the Raja returned, and the Holi
festival[FN#32] caused dancing and singing in every house. Ujjayani
was extraordinarily happy and joyful at the return of her ruler, who
joined in her gladness with all his kingly heart. The faces and
dresses of the public were red and yellow with gulal and
abir,—perfumed powders,[FN#33]—which were sprinkled upon one
another in token of merriment. Musicians deafened the citizens' ears,
dancing girls performed till ready to faint with fatigue, the
manufacturers of comfits made their fortunes, and the Nine Gems of
Science celebrated the auspicious day with the most long- winded odes.
The royal hero, decked in regal attire, and attended by many thousands
of state palanquins glittering with their various ornaments, and
escorted by a suite of a hundred kingly personages, with their martial
array of the four hosts, of cavalry, elephants, chariots, and
infantry, and accompanied by Amazon girls, lovely as the suite of the
gods, himself a personification of majesty, bearing the white parasol
of dominion, with a golden staff and tassels, began once more to
After the first pleasures of return, the king applied himself
unremittingly to good government and to eradicating the abuses which
had crept into the administration during the period of his wanderings.
Mindful of the wise saying, "if the Rajadid not punish the guilty,
the stronger would roast the weaker like a fish on the spit," he
began the work of reform with an iron hand. He confiscated the
property of a councillor who had the reputation of taking bribes; he
branded the forehead of a sudra or servile man whose breath smelt of
ardent spirits, and a goldsmith having been detected in fraud he
ordered him to be cut in shreds with razors as the law in its mercy
directs. In the case of a notorious evil-speaker he opened the back
of his head and had his tongue drawn through the wound. A few
murderers he burned alive on iron beds, praying the while that Vishnu
might have mercy upon their souls. His spies were ordered, as the
shastra called "The Prince" advises, to mix with robbers and thieves
with a view of leading them into situations where they might most
easily be entrapped, and once or twice when the fellows were too wary,
he seized them and their relations and impaled them all, thereby
conclusively proving, without any mistake, that he was king of earth.
With the sex feminine he was equally severe. A woman convicted of
having poisoned an elderly husband in order to marry a younger man was
thrown to the dogs, which speedily devoured her. He punished simple
infidelity by cutting off the offender's nose—an admirable practice,
which is not only a severe penalty to the culprit, but also a standing
warning to others, and an efficient preventative to any recurrence of
the fault. Faithlessness combined with bad example or brazen-facedness
was further treated by being led in solemn procession through the
bazar mounted on a diminutive and crop-eared donkey, with the face
turned towards the crupper. After a few such examples the women of
Ujjayani became almost modest; it is the fault of man when they are
not tolerably well behaved in one point at least.
Every day as Vikram sat upon the judgment-seat, trying causes and
punishing offenses, he narrowly observed the speech, the gestures,
and the countenances of the various criminals and litigants and their
witnesses. Ever suspecting women, as I have said, and holding them to
be the root of all evil, he never failed when some sin or crime more
horrible than usual came before him, to ask the accused, "Who is she?"
and the suddenness of the question often elicited the truth by
accident. For there can be nothing thoroughly and entirely bad unless
a woman is at the bottom of it; and, knowing this, Raja Vikram made
certain notable hits under the most improbable circumstances, which
had almost given him a reputation for omniscience. But this is easily
explained: a man intent upon squaring the circle will see squares in
circles wherever he looks, and sometimes he will find them.
In disputed cases of money claims, the king adhered strictly to
established practice, and consulted persons learned in the law. He
seldom decided a cause on his own judgment, and he showed great
temper and patience in bearing with rough language from irritated
plaintiffs and defendants, from the infirm, and from old men beyond
eighty. That humble petitioners might not be baulked in having access
to the "fountain of justice," he caused an iron box to be suspended by
a chain from the windows of his sleeping apartment. Every morning he
ordered the box to be opened before him, and listened to all the
placets at full length. Even in this simple process he displayed
abundant cautiousness. For, having forgotten what little of the
humanities he had mastered in his youth, he would hand the paper to a
secretary whose business it was to read it out before him; after which
operation the man of letters was sent into an inner room, and the
petition was placed in the hands of a second scribe. Once it so
happened by the bungling of the deceitful kayasths(clerks) that an
important difference was found to occur in the same sheet. So upon
strict inquiry one secretary lost his ears and the other his right
hand. After this petitions were rarely if ever falsified.
The Raja Vikram also lost no time in attacking the cities and towns
and villages of his enemies, but the people rose to a man against
him, and hewing his army to pieces with their weapons, vanquished
him. This took place so often that he despaired of bringing all the
earth under the shadow of his umbrella.
At length on one occasion when near a village he listened to a
conversation of the inhabitants. A woman having baked some cakes was
giving them to her child, who leaving the edges would eat only the
middle. On his asking for another cake, she cried, "This boy's way is
like Vikram's in his attempt to conquer the world!" On his inquiring
"Mother, why, what am I doing; and what has Vikram done?" " Thou, my
boy," she replied, "throwing away the outside of the cake eatest the
middle only. Vikram also in his ambition, without subduing the
frontiers before attacking the towns, invades the heart of the country
and lays it waste. On that account, both the townspeople and others
rising, close upon him from the frontiers to the centre, and destroy
his army. That is his folly."
Vikram took notice of the woman's words. He strengthened his army
and resumed his attack on the provinces and cities, beginning with the
frontiers, reducing the outer towns and stationing troops in the
intervals. Thus he proceeded regularly with his invasions. After a
respite, adopting the same system and marshalling huge armies, he
reduced in regular course each kingdom and province till he became
monarch of the whole world.
It so happened that one day as Vikram the Brave sat upon the
judgment-seat, a young merchant, by name Mal Deo, who had lately
arrived at Ujjayani with loaded camels and elephants, and with the
reputation of immense wealth, entered the palace court. Having been
received with extreme condescension, he gave into the king's hand a
fruit which he had brought in his own, and then spreading a prayer
carpet on the floor he sat down. Presently, after a quarter of an
hour, he arose and went away. When he had gone the king reflected in
his mind: "Under this disguise, perhaps, is the very man of whom the
giant spoke." Suspecting this, he did not eat the fruit, but calling
the master of the household he gave the present to him, ordering him
to keep it in a very careful manner. The young merchant, however,
continued every day to court the honour of an interview, each time
presenting a similar gift.
By chance one morning Raja Vikram went, attended by his ministers,
to see his stables. At this time the young merchant also arrived
there, and in the usual manner placed a fruit in the royal hand. As
the king was thoughtfully tossing it in the air, it accidentally fell
from his fingers to the ground. Then the monkey, who was tethered
amongst the horses to draw calamities from their heads,[FN#34]
snatched it up and tore it to pieces. Whereupon a ruby of such size
and water came forth that the king and his ministers, beholding its
brilliancy, gave vent to expressions of wonder.
Quoth Vikram to the young merchant severely—for his suspicions
were now thoroughly roused—"Why hast thou given to us all this
"O great king," replied Mal Deo, demurely, "it is written in the
scriptures (shastra) 'Of Ceremony' that 'we must not go empty- handed
into the presence of the following persons, namely, Rajas, spiritual
teachers, judges, young maidens, and old women whose daughters we
would marry.' But why, O Vikram, cost thou speak of one ruby only,
since in each of the fruits which I have laid at thy feet there is a
similar jewel?" Having heard this speech, the king said to the master
of his household, "Bring all the fruits which I have entrusted to
thee." The treasurer, on receiving the royal command, immediately
brought them, and having split them, there was found in each one a
ruby, one and all equally perfect in size and water. Raja Vibram
beholding such treasures was excessively pleased. Having sent for a
lapidary, he ordered him to examine the rubies, saying, "We cannot
take anything with us out of this world. Virtue is a noble quality to
possess here below—so tell justly what is the value of each of these
To so moral a speech the lapidary replied, " Maha-Raja[FN#36]!
thou hast said truly; whoever possesses virtue, possesses everything;
virtue indeed accompanies us always, and is of advantage in both
worlds. Hear, O great king! each gem is perfect in colour, quality and
beauty. If I were to say that the value of each was ten million
millions of suvarnas (gold pieces), even then thou couldst not
understand its real worth. In fact, each ruby would buy one of the
seven regions into which the earth is divided."
The king on hearing this was delighted, although his suspicions
were not satisfied; and, having bestowed a robe of honour upon the
lapidary, dismissed him. Thereon, taking the young merchant's hand,
he led him into the palace, seated him upon his own carpet in presence
of the court, and began to say, "My entire kingdom is not worth one of
these rubies: tell me how it is that thou who buyest and sellest hast
given me such and so many pearls?"
Mal Deo replied: "O great king, the speaking of matters like the
following in public is not right; these things—prayers, spells,
drugs, good qualities, household affairs, the eating of forbidden
food, and the evil we may have heard of our neighbour—should not be
discussed in full assembly. Privately I will disclose to thee my
wishes. This is the way of the world; when an affair comes to six
ears, it does not remain secret; if a matter is confided to four ears
it may escape further hearing; and if to two ears even Brahma the
Creator does not know it; how then can any rumour of it come to man?"
Having heard this speech, Raja Vikram took Mal Deo aside, and
began to ask him, saying, "O generous man! you have given me so many
rubies, and even for a single day you have not eaten food with me; I
am exceedingly ashamed, tell me what you desire."
"Raja," said the young merchant, "I am not Mal Deo, but Shanta-
Shil,[FN#37] a devotee. I am about to perform spells, incantations
and magical rites on the banks of the river Godavari, in a large
smashana, a cemetery where bodies are burned. By this means the Eight
Powers of Nature will all become mine. This thing I ask of you as
alms, that you and the young prince Dharma Dhwaj will pass one night
with me, doing my bidding. By you remaining near me my incantations
will be successful."
The valiant Vikram nearly started from his seat at the word
cemetery, but, like a ruler of men, he restrained his face from
expressing his feelings, and he presently replied, "Good, we will
come, tell us on what day!"
"You are to come to me," said the devotee, "armed, but without
followers, on the Monday evening the 14th of the dark half of the
month Bhadra.[FN#38]" The Raja said: "Do you go your ways, we will
certainly come." In this manner, having received a promise from the
king, and having taken leave, the devotee returned to his house:
thence he repaired to the temple, and having made preparations, and
taken all the necessary things, he went back into the cemetery and sat
down to his ceremonies.
The valiant Vikram, on the other hand, retired into an inner
apartment, to consult his own judgment about an adventure with which,
for fear of ridicule, he was unwilling to acquaint even the most
trustworthy of his ministers.
In due time came the evening moon's day, the 14th of the dark half
of the month Bhadra. As the short twilight fell gloomily on earth,
the warrior king accompanied by his son, with turband-ends tied under
their chins, and with trusty blades tucked under their arms ready for
foes, human, bestial, or devilish, slipped out unseen through the
palace wicket, and took the road leading to the cemetery on the river
Dark and drear was the night. Urged by the furious blast of the
lingering winter-rains, masses of bistre-coloured cloud, like the
forms of unwieldy beasts, rolled heavily over the firmament plain.
Whenever the crescent of the young moon, rising from an horizon sable
as the sad Tamala's hue,[FN#39] glanced upon the wayfarers, it was no
brighter than the fine tip of an elephant's tusk protruding from the
muddy wave. A heavy storm was impending; big drops fell in showers
from the forest trees as they groaned under the blast, and beneath the
gloomy avenue the clayey ground gleamed ghastly white. As the Raja and
his son advanced, a faint ray of light, like the line of pure gold
streaking the dark surface of the touchstone, caught their eyes, and
directed their footsteps towards the cemetery.
When Vikram came upon the open space on the riverbank where
corpses were burned, he hesitated for a moment to tread its impure
ground. But seeing his son undismayed, he advanced boldly, trampling
upon remnants of bones, and only covering his mouth with his
Presently, at the further extremity of the smashana, or burning
ground, appeared a group. By the lurid flames that flared and
flickered round the half-extinguished funeral pyres, with remnants of
their dreadful loads, Raja Vikram and Dharma Dhwaj could note the
several features of the ill-omened spot. There was an outer circle of
hideous bestial forms; tigers were roaring, and elephants were
trumpeting; wolves, whose foul hairy coats blazed with sparks of
bluish phosphoric light, were devouring the remnants of human bodies;
foxes, jackals, and hyenas were disputing over their prey; whilst
bears were chewing the livers of children. The space within was
peopled by a multitude of fiends. There were the subtle bodies of men
that had escaped their grosser frames prowling about the charnel
ground, where their corpses had been reduced to ashes, or hovering in
the air, waiting till the new bodies which they were to animate were
made ready for their reception. The spirits of those that had been
foully slain wandered about with gashed limbs; and skeletons, whose
mouldy bones were held together by bits of blackened sinew, followed
them as the murderer does his victim. Malignant witches with shriveled
skins, horrid eyes and distorted forms, crawled and crouched over the
earth; whilst spectres and goblins now stood motionless, and tall as
lofty palm trees; then, as if in fits, leaped, danced, and tumbled
before their evocator. The air was filled with shrill and strident
cries, with the fitful moaning of the storm-wind, with the hooting of
the owl, with the jackal's long wild cry, and with the hoarse gurgling
of the swollen river, from whose banks the earth-slip thundered in its
In the midst of all, close to the fire which lit up his evil
countenance, sat Shanta-Shil, the jogi, with the banner that denoted
his calling and his magic staff planted in the ground behind him. He
was clad in the ochre-coloured loin-wrap of his class; from his head
streamed long tangled locks of hair like horsehair; his black body was
striped with lines of chalk, and a girdle of thighbones encircled his
waist. His face was smeared with ashes from a funeral pyre, and his
eyes, fixed as those of a statue, gleamed from this mask with an
infernal light of hate. His cheeks were shaven, and he had not
forgotten to draw the horizontal sectarian mark. But this was of
blood; and Vikram, as he drew near saw that he was playing upon a
human skull with two shank bones, making music for the horrid revelry.
Now Raja Vibram, as has been shown by his encounter with Indra's
watchman, was a bold prince, and he was cautious as he was brave. The
sight of a human being in the midst of these terrors raised his
mettle; he determined to prove himself a hero, and feeling that the
critical moment was now come, he hoped to rid himself and his house
forever of the family curse that hovered over them.
For a moment he thought of the giant's words, "And remember that
it is lawful and right to strike off his head that would slay thee." A
stroke with his good sword might at once and effectually put an end
to the danger. But then he remembered that he had passed his royal
word to do the devotee's bidding that night. Besides, he felt assured
that the hour for action had not yet sounded.
These reflections having passed through his mind with the rapid
course of a star that has lost its honours,[FN#40] Vikram courteously
saluted Shanta-Shil. The jogi briefly replied, "Come sit down, both of
ye." The father and son took their places, by no means surprised or
frightened by the devil dances before and around them. Presently the
valiant Raja reminded the devotee that he was come to perform his
promise, and lastly asked, "What commands are there for us?"
The jogi replied, "O king, since you have come, just perform one
piece of business. About two kos[FN#41] hence, in a southerly
direction, there is another place where dead bodies are burned; and
in that place is a mimosa tree, on which a body is hanging. Bring it
to me immediately."
Raja Vikram took his son's hand, unwilling to leave him in such
company; and, catching up a fire-brand, went rapidly away in the
proper direction. He was now certain that Shanta-Shil was the
anchorite who, enraged by his father, had resolved his destruction;
and his uppermost thought was a firm resolve "to breakfast upon his
enemy, ere his enemy could dine upon him." He muttered this old saying
as he went, whilst the tom-toming of the anchorite upon the skull
resounded in his ears, and the devil-crowd, which had held its peace
during his meeting with Shanta-Shil, broke out again in an infernal
din of whoops and screams, yells and laughter.
The darkness of the night was frightful, the gloom deepened till it
was hardly possible to walk. The clouds opened their fountains,
raining so that you would say they could never rain again. Lightning
blazed forth with more than the light of day, and the roar of the
thunder caused the earth to shake. Baleful gleams tipped the black
cones of the trees and fitfully scampered like fireflies over the
waste. Unclean goblins dogged the travellers and threw themselves upon
the ground in their path and obstructed them in a thousand different
ways. Huge snakes, whose mouths distilled blood and black venom, kept
clinging around their legs in the roughest part of the road, till they
were persuaded to loose their hold either by the sword or by reciting
a spell. In fact, there were so many horrors and such a tumult and
noise that even a brave man would have faltered, yet the king kept on
At length having passed over, somehow or other, a very difficult
road, the Raja arrived at the smashana, or burning place pointed out
by the jogi. Suddenly he sighted the tree where from root to top every
branch and leaf was in a blaze of crimson flame. And when he, still
dauntless, advanced towards it, a clamour continued to be raised, and
voices kept crying, "Kill them! kill them! seize them! seize them!
take care that they do not get away! let them scorch themselves to
cinders! let them suffer the pains of Patala.[FN#42]"
Far from being terrified by this state of things the valiant Raja
increased in boldness, seeing a prospect of an end to his adventure.
Approaching the tree he felt that the fire did not burn him, and so
he sat there for a while to observe the body, which hung, head
downwards, from a branch a little above him.
Its eyes, which were wide open, were of a greenish-brown, and
never twinkled; its hair also was brown,[FN#43] and brown was its
face—three several shades which, notwithstanding, approached one
another in an unpleasant way, as in an over-dried cocoa-nut. Its body
was thin and ribbed like a skeleton or a bamboo framework, and as it
held on to a bough, like a flying fox,[FN#44] by the toe- tips, its
drawn muscles stood out as if they were ropes of coin. Blood it
appeared to have none, or there would have been a decided
determination of that curious juice to the head; and as the Raja
handled its skin it felt icy cold and clammy as might a snake. The
only sign of life was the whisking of a ragged little tail much
resembling a goat's.
Judging from these signs the brave king at once determined the
creature to be a Baital—a Vampire. For a short time he was puzzled
to reconcile the appearance with the words of the giant, who informed
him that the anchorite had hung the oilman's son to a tree. But soon
he explained to himself the difficulty, remembering the exceeding
cunning of jogis and other reverend men, and determining that his
enemy, the better to deceive him, had doubtless altered the shape and
form of the young oilman's body.
With this idea, Vikram was pleased, saying, "My trouble has been
productive of fruit." Remained the task of carrying the Vampire to
Shanta-Shil the devotee. Having taken his sword, the Raja fearlessly
climbed the tree, and ordering his son to stand away from below,
clutched the Vampire's hair with one hand, and with the other struck
such a blow of the sword, that the bough was cut and the thing fell
heavily upon the ground. Immediately on falling it gnashed its teeth
and began to utter a loud wailing cry like the screams of an infant in
pain. Vikram having heard the sound of its lamentations, was pleased,
and began to say to himself, "This devil must be alive." Then nimbly
sliding down the trunk, he made a captive of the body, and asked " Who
Scarcely, however, had the words passed the royal lips, when the
Vampire slipped through the fingers like a worm, and uttering a loud
shout of laughter, rose in the air with its legs uppermost, and as
before suspended itself by its toes to another bough. And there it
swung to and fro, moved by the violence of its cachinnation.
"Decidedly this is the young oilman!" exclaimed the Raja, after he
had stood for a minute or two with mouth open, gazing upwards and
wondering what he should do next. Presently he directed Dharma Dhwaj
not to lose an instant in laying hands upon the thing when it next
might touch the ground, and then he again swarmed up the tree. Having
reached his former position, he once more seized the Baital's hair,
and with all the force of his arms—for he was beginning to feel
really angry—he tore it from its hold and dashed it to the ground,
saying, "O wretch, tell me who thou art?"
Then, as before, the Raja slid deftly down the trunk, and hurried
to the aid of his son, who in obedience to orders, had fixed his grasp
upon the Vampire's neck. Then, too, as before, the Vampire, laughing
aloud, slipped through their fingers and returned to its
To fail twice was too much for Raja Vikram's temper, which was
right kingly and somewhat hot. This time he bade his son strike the
Baital's head with his sword. Then, more like a wounded bear of
Himalaya than a prince who had established an era, he hurried up the
tree, and directed a furious blow with his sabre at the Vampire's lean
and calfless legs. The violence of the stroke made its toes loose
their hold of the bough, and when it touched the ground, Dharma
Dhwaj's blade fell heavily upon its matted brown hair. But the blows
appeared to have lighted on iron-wood—to judge at least from the
behaviour of the Baital, who no sooner heard the question, "O wretch,
who art thou?" than it returned in loud glee and merriment to its old
Five mortal times did Raja Vikram repeat this profitless labour.
But so far from losing heart, he quite entered into the spirit of the
adventure. Indeed he would have continued climbing up that tree and
taking that corpse under his arm—he found his sword useless— and
bringing it down, and asking it who it was, and seeing it slip through
his fingers, six times sixty times, or till the end of the fourth and
present age,[FN#45] had such extreme resolution been required.
However, it was not necessary. On the seventh time of falling, the
Baital, instead of eluding its capturer's grasp, allowed itself to be
seized, merely remarking that "even the gods cannot resist a
thoroughly obstinate man."[FN#46] And seeing that the stranger, for
the better protection of his prize, had stripped off his waistcloth
and was making it into a bag, the Vampire thought proper to seek the
most favourable conditions for himself, and asked his conqueror who he
was, and what he was about to do?
"Vile wretch," replied the breathless hero, "know me to be Vikram
the Great, Raja of Ujjayani, and I bear thee to a man who is amusing
himself by drumming to devils on a skull."
"Remember the old saying, mighty Vikram!" said the Baital, with a
sneer, "that many a tongue has cut many a throat. I have yielded to
thy resolution and I am about to accompany thee, bound to thy back
like a beggar's wallet. But hearken to my words, ere we set out upon
the way. I am of a loquacious disposition, and it is well nigh an
hour's walk between this tree and the place where thy friend sits,
favouring his friends with the peculiar music which they love.
Therefore, I shall try to distract my thoughts, which otherwise might
not be of the most pleasing nature, by means of sprightly tales and
profitable reflections. Sages and men of sense spend their days in the
delights of light and heavy literature, whereas dolts and fools waste
time in sleep and idleness. And I purpose to ask thee a number of
questions, concerning which we will, if it seems fit to thee, make
"Whenever thou answerest me, either compelled by Fate or entrapped
by my cunning into so doing, or thereby gratifying thy vanity and
conceit, I leave thee and return to my favourite place and position in
the siras-tree, but when thou shalt remain silent, confused, and at a
loss to reply, either through humility or thereby confessing thine
ignorance, and impotence, and want of comprehension, then will I allow
thee, of mine own free will, to place me before thine employer.
Perhaps I should not say so; it may sound like bribing thee, but—take
my counsel, and mortify thy pride, and assumption, and arrogance, and
haughtiness, as soon as possible. So shalt thou derive from me a
benefit which none but myself can bestow."
Raja Vikram hearing these rough words, so strange to his royal
ear, winced; then he rejoiced that his heir apparent was not near;
then he looked round at his son Dharma Dhwaj, to see if he was
impertinent enough to be amused by the Baital. But the first glance
showed him the young prince busily employed in pinching and screwing
the monster's legs, so as to make it fit better into the cloth. Vikram
then seized the ends of the waistcloth, twisted them into a convenient
form for handling, stooped, raised the bundle with a jerk, tossed it
over his shoulder, and bidding his son not to lag behind, set off at a
round pace towards the western end of the cemetery.
The shower had ceased, and, as they gained ground, the weather
The Vampire asked a few indifferent questions about the wind and
the rain and the mud. When he received no answer, he began to feel
uncomfortable, and he broke out with these words: "O King Vikram,
listen to the true story which I am about to tell thee."
In Benares once reigned a mighty prince, by name Pratapamukut, to
whose eighth son Vajramukut happened the strangest adventure.
One morning, the young man, accompanied by the son of his father's
pradhan or prime minister, rode out hunting, and went far into the
jungle. At last the twain unexpectedly came upon a beautiful "tank
[FN#47]" of a prodigious size. It was surrounded by short thick walls
of fine baked brick; and flights and ramps of cut-stone steps, half
the length of each face, and adorned with turrets, pendants, and
finials, led down to the water. The substantial plaster work and the
masonry had fallen into disrepair, and from the crevices sprang huge
trees, under whose thick shade the breeze blew freshly, and on whose
balmy branches the birds sang sweetly; the grey squirrels [FN#48]
chirruped joyously as they coursed one another up the gnarled trunks,
and from the pendent llianas the longtailed monkeys were swinging
sportively. The bountiful hand of Sravana [FN#49] had spread the
earthen rampart with a carpet of the softest grass and many-hued wild
flowers, in which were buzzing swarms of bees and myriads of bright
winged insects; and flocks of water fowl, wild geese Brahmini ducks,
bitterns, herons, and cranes, male and female, were feeding on the
narrow strip of brilliant green that belted the long deep pool,
amongst the broad-leaved lotuses with the lovely blossoms, splashing
through the pellucid waves, and basking happily in the genial sun.
The prince and his friend wondered when they saw the beautiful
tank in the midst of a wild forest, and made many vain conjectures
about it. They dismounted, tethered their horses, and threw their
weapons upon the ground; then, having washed their hands and faces,
they entered a shrine dedicated to Mahadeva, and there began to
worship the presiding deity.
Whilst they were making their offerings, a bevy of maidens,
accompanied by a crowd of female slaves, descended the opposite
flight of steps. They stood there for a time, talking and laughing
and looking about them to see if any alligators infested the waters.
When convinced that the tank was safe, they disrobed themselves in
order to bathe. It was truly a splendid spectacle
"Concerning which the less said the better," interrupted
RajaVikram in an offended tone.[FN#50]
—but did not last long. The Raja's daughter—for the principal
maiden was a princess—soon left her companions, who were scooping
up water with their palms and dashing it over one another's heads, and
proceeded to perform the rites of purification, meditation, and
worship. Then she began strolling with a friend under the shade of a
small mango grove.
The prince also left his companion sitting in prayer, and walked
forth into the forest. Suddenly the eyes of the Raja's son and the
Raja's daughter met. She started back with a little scream. He was
fascinated by her beauty, and began to say to himself, " O thou vile
Karma,[FN#51] why worriest thou me?"
Hearing this, the maiden smiled encouragement, but the poor youth,
between palpitation of the heart and hesitation about what to say, was
so confused that his tongue crave to his teeth. She raised her
eyebrows a little. There is nothing which women despise in a man more
than modesty, [FN#52] for mo-des-ty—
A violent shaking of the bag which hung behind Vikram's royal back
broke off the end of this offensive sentence. And the warrior king did
not cease that discipline till the Baital promised him to preserve
more decorum in his observations.
Still the prince stood before her with downcast eyes and suffused
cheeks: even the spur of contempt failed to arouse his energies. Then
the maiden called to her friend, who was picking jasmine flowers so as
not to witness the scene, and angrily asked why that strange man was
allowed to stand and stare at her? The friend, in hot wrath,
threatened to call the slave, and throw Vajramukut into the pond
unless he instantly went away with his impudence. But as the prince
was rooted to the spot, and really had not heard a word of what had
been said to him, the two women were obliged to make the first move.
As they almost reached the tank, the beautiful maiden turned her
head to see what the poor modest youth was doing.
Vajramukut was formed in every way to catch a woman's eye. The
Raja's daughter therefore half forgave him his offence of mod——.
Again she sweetly smiled, disclosing two rows of little opals. Then
descending to the water's edge, she stooped down and plucked a lotus
This she worshipped; next she placed it in her hair, then she put it
in her ear, then she bit it with her teeth, then she trod upon it with
her foot, then she raised it up again, and lastly she stuck it in her
bosom. After which she mounted her conveyance and went home to her
friends; whilst the prince, having become thoroughly desponding and
drowned in grief at separation from her, returned to the minister's
"Females!" ejaculated the minister's son, speaking to himself in a
careless tone, when, his prayer finished, he left the temple, and sat
down upon the tank steps to enjoy the breeze. He presently drew a
roll of paper from under his waist-belt, and in a short time was
engrossed with his study. The women seeing this conduct, exerted
themselves in every possible way of wile to attract his attention and
to distract his soul. They succeeded only so far as to make him roll
his head with a smile, and to remember that such is always the custom
of man's bane; after which he turned over a fresh page of manuscript.
And although he presently began to wonder what had become of the
prince his master, he did not look up even once from his study.
He was a philosopher, that young man. But after all, Raja Vikram,
what is mortal philosophy? Nothing but another name for indifference!
Who was ever philosophical about a thing truly loved or really hated?
— no one! Philosophy, says Shankharacharya, is either a gift of
nature or the reward of study. But I, the Baital, the devil, ask you,
what is a born philosopher, save a man of cold desires? And what is a
bred philosopher but a man who has survived his desires? A young
philosopher?—a cold-blooded youth! An elderly philosopher?—a
leuco-phlegmatic old man! Much nonsense, of a verity, ye hear in
praise of nothing from your Rajaship's Nine Gems of Science, and from
sundry other such wise fools.
Then the prince began to relate the state of his case, saying, " O
friend, I have seen a damsel, but whether she be a musician from
Indra's heaven, a maiden of the sea, a daughter of the serpent kings,
or the child of an earthly Raja, I cannot say."
"Describe her," said the statesman in embryo.
"Her face," quoth the prince, "was that of the full moon, her hair
like a swarm of bees hanging from the blossoms of the acacia, the
corners of her eyes touched her ears, her lips were sweet with lunar
ambrosia, her waist was that of a lion, and her walk the walk of a
king goose. [FN#53] As a garment, she was white; as a season, the
spring; as a flower, the jasmine; as a speaker, the kokila bird; as a
perfume, musk; as a beauty, Kamadeva; and as a being, Love. And if
she does not come into my possession I will not live; this I have
certainly determined upon."
The young minister, who had heard his prince say the same thing
more than once before, did not attach great importance to these awful
words. He merely remarked that, unless they mounted at once, night
would surprise them in the forest. Then the two young men returned to
their horses, untethered them, drew on their bridles, saddled them,
and catching up their weapons, rode slowly towards the Raja's palace.
During the three hours of return hardly a word passed between the
pair. Vajramukut not only avoided speaking; he never once replied till
addressed thrice in the loudest voice.
The young minister put no more questions, "for," quoth he to
himself, "when the prince wants my counsel, he will apply for it." In
this point he had borrowed wisdom from his father, who held in
peculiar horror the giving of unasked- for advice. So, when he saw
that conversation was irksome to his master, he held his peace and
meditated upon what he called his "day-thought." It was his practice
to choose every morning some tough food for reflection, and to chew
the cud of it in his mind at times when, without such employment, his
wits would have gone wool-gathering. You may imagine, Raja Vikram,
that with a few years of this head work, the minister's son became a
very crafty young person.
After the second day the Prince Vajramukut, being restless from
grief at separation, fretted himself into a fever. Having given up
writing, reading, drinking, sleeping, the affairs entrusted to him by
his father, and everything else, he sat down, as he said, to die. He
used constantly to paint the portrait of the beautiful lotus gatherer,
and to lie gazing upon it with tearful eyes; then he would start up
and tear it to pieces and beat his forehead, and begin another
picture of a yet more beautiful face.
At last, as the pradhan's son had foreseen, he was summoned by the
young Raja, whom he found upon his bed, looking yellow and complaining
bitterly of headache. Frequent discussions upon the subject of the
tender passion had passed between the two youths, and one of them had
ever spoken of it so very disrespectfully that the other felt ashamed
to introduce it. But when his friend, with a view to provoke
communicativeness, advised a course of boiled and bitter herbs and
great attention to diet, quoting the hemistich attributed to the
learned physician Charndatta
A fever starve, but feed a cold,
the unhappy Vajramukut's fortitude abandoned him; he burst into
tears, and exclaimed," Whosoever enters upon the path of love cannot
survive it; and if (by chance) he should live, what is life to him but
a prolongation of his misery?"
"Yea," replied the minister's son, "the sage hath said—
The road of love is that which hath no beginning nor end; Take
thou heed of thyself, man I ere thou place foot upon it.
And the wise, knowing that there are three things whose effect
upon himself no man can foretell—namely, desire of woman, the
dice-box, and the drinking of ardent spirits—find total abstinence
from them the best of rules. Yet, after all, if there is no cow, we
must milk the bull."
The advice was, of course, excellent, but the hapless lover could
not help thinking that on this occasion it came a little too late.
However, after a pause he returned to the subject and said, "I have
ventured to tread that dangerous way, be its end pain or pleasure,
happiness or destruction." He then hung down his head and sighed from
the bottom of his heart.
"She is the person who appeared to us at the tank?" asked the
pradhan's son, moved to compassion by the state of his master.
The prince assented.
"O great king," resumed the minister's son, "at the time of going
away had she said anything to you? or had you said anything to her?"
"Nothing!" replied the other laconically, when he found his friend
beginning to take an interest in the affair.
"Then," said the minister's son, "it will be exceedingly difficult
to get possession of her."
"Then," repeated the Raja's son, "I am doomed to death; to an early
and melancholy death!"
"Humph!" ejaculated the young statesman rather impatiently, "did
she make any sign, or give any hint? Let me know all that happened:
half confidences are worse than none."
Upon which the prince related everything that took place by the
side of the tank, bewailing the false shame which had made him dumb,
and concluding with her pantomime.
The pradhan's son took thought for a while. He thereupon seized
the opportunity of representing to his master all the evil effects of
bashfulness when women are concerned, and advised him, as he would be
a happy lover, to brazen his countenance for the next interview.
Which the young Raja faithfully promised to do.
"And, now," said the other, "be comforted, O my master! I know her
name and her dwelling-place. When she suddenly plucked the lotus
flower and worshipped it, she thanked the gods for having blessed her
with a sight of your beauty."
Vajramukut smiled, the first time for the last month.
"When she applied it to her ear, it was as if she would have
explained to thee, 'I am a daughter of the Carnatic: [FN#54] and when
she bit it with her teeth, she meant to say that 'My father is Raja
Dantawat, [FN#55]' who, by-the-bye, has been, is, and ever will be, a
mortal foe to thy father."
"When she put it under her foot it meant, 'My name is Padmavati.
Vajramukut uttered a cry of joy.
"And when she placed it in her bosom, 'You are truly dwelling in
my heart' was meant to be understood."
At these words the young Raja started up full of new life, and
after praising with enthusiasm the wondrous sagacity of his dear
friend, begged him by some contrivance to obtain the permission of his
parents, and to conduct him to her city. The minister's son easily
got leave for Vajramukut to travel, under pretext that his body
required change of water, and his mind change of scene. They both
dressed and armed themselves for the journey, and having taken some
jewels, mounted their horses and followed the road in that direction
in which the princess had gone.
Arrived after some days at the capital of the Carnatic, the
minister's son having disguised his master and himself in the garb of
travelling traders, alighted and pitched his little tent upon a clear
bit of ground in one of the suburbs. He then proceeded to inquire for
a wise woman, wanting, he said, to have his fortune told. When the
prince asked him what this meant, he replied that elderly dames who
professionally predict the future are never above [ministering to the
present, and therefore that, in such circumstances, they are the
properest persons to be consulted.
"Is this a treatise upon the subject of immorality, devil?"
demanded the King Vikram ferociously. The Baital declared that it was
not, but that he must tell his story.
The person addressed pointed to an old woman who, seated before
the door of her hut, was spinning at her wheel. Then the young men
went up to her with polite salutations and said, "Mother, we are
travelling traders, and our stock is coming after us; we have come on
in advance for the purpose of finding a place to live in. If you will
give us a house, we will remain there and pay you highly."
The old woman, who was a physiognomist as well as a
fortune-teller, looked at the faces of the young men and liked them,
because their brows were wide, and their mouths denoted generosity.
Having listened to their words, she took pity upon them and said
kindly, "This hovel is yours, my masters, remain here as long as you
please." Then she led them into an inner room, again welcomed them,
lamented the poorness of her abode, and begged them to lie down and
After some interval of time the old woman came to them once more,
and sitting down began to gossip. The minister's son upon this asked
her, "How is it with thy family, thy relatives, and connections; and
what are thy means of subsistence?" She replied, ``My son is a
favourite servant in the household of our great king Dantawat, and
your slave is the wet-nurse of the Princess Padmavati, his eldest
child. From the coming on of old age," she added, "I dwell in this
house, but the king provides for my eating and drinking. I go once a
day to see the girl, who is a miracle of beauty and goodness, wit and
accomplishments, and returning thence, I bear my own griefs at home.
In a few days the young Vajramukut had, by his liberality, soft
speech, and good looks, made such progress in nurse Lakshmi's
affections that, by the advice of his companion, he ventured to
broach the subject ever nearest his heart. He begged his hostess,
when she went on the morrow to visit the charming Padmavati, that she
would be kind enough to slip a bit of paper into the princess's hand.
"Son," she replied, delighted with the proposal—and what old
woman would not be?—"there is no need for putting off so urgent an
affair till the morrow. Get your paper ready, and I will immediately
Trembling with pleasure, the prince ran to find his friend, who was
seated in the garden reading, as usual, and told him what the old
nurse had engaged to do. He then began to debate about how he should
write his letter, to cull sentences and to weigh phrases; whether
"light of my eyes" was not too trite, and "blood of my liver" rather
too forcible. At this the minister's son smiled, and bade the prince
not trouble his head with composition. He then drew his inkstand from
his waist shawl, nibbed a reed pen, and choosing a piece of pink and
flowered paper, he wrote upon it a few lines. He then folded it,
gummed it, sketched a lotus flower upon the outside, and handing it to
the young prince, told him to give it to their hostess, and that all
would be well.
The old woman took her staff in her hand and hobbled straight to
the palace. Arrived there, she found the Raja's daughter sitting
alone in her apartment. The maiden, seeing her nurse, immediately
arose, and making a respectful bow, led her to a seat and began the
most affectionate inquiries. After giving her blessing and sitting
for some time and chatting about indifferent matters, the nurse said,
" O daughter! in infancy I reared and nourished thee, now the Bhagwan
(Deity) has rewarded me by giving thee stature, beauty, health, and
goodness. My heart only longs to see the happiness of thy womanhood,
[FN#58] after which I shall depart in peace. I implore thee read this
paper, given to me by the handsomest and the properest young man that
my eyes have ever seen."
The princess, glancing at the lotus on the outside of the note,
slowly unfolded it and perused its contents, which were as follows:
She was to me the pearl that clings
To sands all hid from mortal sight,
Yet fit for diadems of kings,
The pure and lovely light.
She was to me the gleam of sun
That breaks the gloom of wintry day;
One moment shone my soul upon,
Then passed—how soon!—away.
She was to me the dreams of bliss
That float the dying eyes before,
For one short hour shed happiness,
And fly to bless no more.
O light, again upon me shine;
O pearl, again delight my eyes;
O dreams of bliss, again be mine!—
No! earth may not be Paradise.
I must not forget to remark, parenthetically, that the minister's
son, in order to make these lines generally useful, had provided them
with a last stanza in triplicate. "For lovers," he said sagely," are
either in the optative mood, the desperative, or the exultative."
This time he had used the optative. For the desperative he would
The joys of life lie dead, lie dead,
The light of day is quenched in gloom
The spark of hope my heart hath fled —
What now witholds me from the tomb?
And this was the termination exultative, as he called it:
O joy I the pearl is mine again,
Once more the day is bright and clear,
And now 'tis real, then 'twas vain,
My dream of bliss—O heaven is here!
The Princess Padmavati having perused this doggrel with a
contemptuous look, tore off the first word of the last line, and said
to the nurse, angrily, "Get thee gone, O mother of Yama, [FN#59] O
unfortunate creature, and take back this answer"—giving her the
scrap of paper—"to the fool who writes such bad verses. I wonder
where he studied the humanities. Begone, and never do such an action
The old nurse, distressed at being so treated, rose up and returned
home. Vajramukut was too agitated to await her arrival, so he went to
meet her on the way. Imagine his disappointment when she gave him the
fatal word and repeated to him exactly what happened, not forgetting
to describe a single look! He felt tempted to plunge his sword into
his bosom; but Fortune interfered, and sent him to consult his
"Be not so hasty and desperate, my prince," said the pradhan's son,
seeing his wild grief; "you have not understood her meaning. Later in
life you will be aware of the fact that, in nine cases out of ten, a
woman's 'no' is a distinct 'yes.' This morning's work has been good;
the maiden asked where you learnt the humanities, which being
interpreted signifies 'Who are you?"'
On the next day the prince disclosed his rank to old Lakshmi, who
naturally declared that she had always known it. The trust they
reposed in her made her ready to address Padmavati once more on the
forbidden subject. So she again went to the palace, and having
lovingly greeted her nursling, said to her, "The Raja's son, whose
heart thou didst fascinate on the brim of the tank, on the fifth day
of the moon, in the light half of the month Yeth, has come to my
house, and sends this message to thee: "Perform what you promised; we
have now come"; and I also tell thee that this prince is worthy of
thee: just as thou art beautiful, so is he endowed with all good
qualities of mind and body."
When Padmavati heard this speech she showed great anger, and,
rubbing sandal on her beautiful hands, she slapped the old woman's
cheeks, and cried, "Wretch, Daina (witch)! get out of my house; did I
not forbid thee to talk such folly in my presence?"
The lover and the nurse were equally distressed at having taken the
advice of the young minister, till he explained what the crafty
damsel meant. "When she smeared the sandal on her ten fingers," he
explained, "and struck the old woman on the face, she signified that
when the remaining ten moonlight nights shall have passed away she
will meet you in the dark." At the same time he warned his master that
to all appearances the lady Padmavati was far too clever to make a
comfortable wife. The minister's son especially hated talented
intellectual, and strong-minded women; he had been heard to describe
the torments of Naglok [FN#60] as the compulsory companionship of a
polemical divine and a learned authoress, well stricken in years and
of forbidding aspect, as such persons mostly are. Amongst womankind he
admired— theoretically, as became a philosopher—the small, plump,
laughing, chattering, unintellectual, and material-minded. And
therefore—excuse the digression, Raja Vikram—he married an old
maid, tall, thin, yellow, strictly proper, cold-mannered, a
conversationist, and who prided herself upon spirituality. But more
wonderful still, after he did marry her, he actually loved her—what
an incomprehensible being is man in these matters!
To return, however. The pradhan's son, who detected certain
symptoms of strong-mindedness in the Princess Padmavati, advised his
lord to be wise whilst wisdom availed him. This sage counsel was, as
might be guessed, most ungraciously rejected by him for whose benefit
it was intended. Then the sensible young statesman rated himself
soundly for having broken his father's rule touching advice, and
atoned for it by blindly forwarding the views of his master.
After the ten nights of moonlight had passed, the old nurse was
again sent to the palace with the usual message. This time Padmavati
put saffron on three of her fingers, and again left their marks on the
nurse's cheek. The minister's son explained that this was to crave
delay for three days, and that on the fourth the lover would have
access to her.
When the time had passed the old woman again went and inquired
after her health and well-being. The princess was as usual very
wroth, and having personally taken her nurse to the western gate, she
called her "Mother of the elephant's trunk, [FN#61]'' and drove her
out with threats of the bastinado if she ever came back. This was
reported to the young statesman, who, after a few minutes'
consideration, said, "The explanation of this matter is, that she has
invited you to-morrow, at nighttime, to meet her at this very gate.
"When brown shadows fell upon the face of earth, and here and
there a star spangled the pale heavens, the minister's son called
Vajramukut, who had been engaged in adorning himself at least half
that day. He had carefully shaved his cheeks and chin; his mustachio
was trimmed and curled; he had arched his eyebrows by plucking out
with tweezers the fine hairs around them; he had trained his curly
musk-coloured love-locks to hang gracefully down his face; he had
drawn broad lines of antimony along his eyelids, a most brilliant
sectarian mark was affixed to his forehead, the colour of his lips had
been heightened by chewing betel-nut—
"One would imagine that you are talking of a silly girl, not of a
prince, fiend!" interrupted Vikram, who did not wish his son to hear
what he called these fopperies and frivolities.
—and whitened his neck by having it shaved (continued the Baital,
speaking quickly, as if determined not to be interrupted), and
reddened the tips of his ears by squeezing them, and made his teeth
shine by rubbing copper powder into the roots, and set off the
delicacy of his fingers by staining the tips with henna. He had not
been less careful with his dress: he wore a well-arranged turband,
which had taken him at least two hours to bind, and a rich suit of
brown stuff chosen for the adventure he was about to attempt, and he
hung about his person a number of various weapons, so as to appear a
hero—which young damsels admire.
Vajramukut asked his friend how he looked, and smiled happily when
the other replied "Admirable!" His happiness was so great that he
feared it might not last, and he asked the minister's son how best to
"As a conqueror, my prince!" answered that astute young man, "if
it so be that you would be one. When you wish to win a woman, always
impose upon her. Tell her that you are her master, and she will
forthwith believe herself to be your servant. Inform her that she
loves you, and forthwith she will adore you. Show her that you care
nothing for her, and she will think of nothing but you. Prove to her
by your demeanour that you consider her a slave, and she will become
your pariah. But above all things—excuse me if I repeat myself too
often —beware of the fatal virtue which men call modesty and women
sheepishness. Recollect the trouble it has given us, and the danger
which we have incurred: all this might have been managed at a tank
within fifteen miles of your royal father's palace. And allow me to
say that you may still thank your stars: in love a lost opportunity is
seldom if ever recovered. The time to woo a woman is the moment you
meet her, before she has had time to think; allow her the use of
reflection and she may escape the net. And after avoiding the rock of
Modesty, fall not, I conjure you, into the gulf of Security. I fear
the lady Padmavati, she is too clever and too prudent. When damsels of
her age draw the sword of Love, they throw away the scabbard of
Precaution. But you yawn —I weary you—it is time for us to move."
Two watches of the night had passed, and there was profound
stillness on earth. The young men then walked quietly through the
shadows, till they reached the western gate of the palace, and found
the wicket ajar. The minister's son peeped in and saw the porter
dozing, stately as a Brahman deep in the Vedas, and behind him stood a
veiled woman seemingly waiting for somebody. He then returned on
tiptoe to the place where he had left his master, and with a parting
caution against modesty and security, bade him fearlessly glide
through the wicket. Then having stayed a short time at the gate
listening with anxious ear, he went back to the old woman's house.
Vajramukut penetrating to the staircase, felt his hand grasped by
the veiled figure, who motioning him to tread lightly, led him
quickly forwards. They passed under several arches, through dim
passages and dark doorways, till at last running up a flight of stone
steps they reached the apartments of the princess.
Vajramukut was nearly fainting as the flood of splendour broke
upon him. Recovering himself he gazed around the rooms, and presently
a tumult of delight invaded his soul, and his body bristled with joy.
[FN#62] The scene was that of fairyland. Golden censers exhaled the
most costly perfumes, and gemmed vases bore the most beautiful
flowers; silver lamps containing fragrant oil illuminated doors whose
panels were wonderfully decorated, and walls adorned with pictures in
which such figures were formed that on seeing them the beholder was
enchanted. On one side of the room stood a bed of flowers and a couch
covered with brocade of gold, and strewed with freshly-culled jasmine
flowers. On the other side, arranged in proper order, were attar
holders, betel-boxes, rose-water bottles, trays, and silver cases with
four partitions for essences compounded of rose leaves, sugar, and
spices, prepared sandal wood, saffron, and pods of musk. Scattered
about a stuccoed floor white as crystal, were coloured caddies of
exquisite confections, and in others sweetmeats of various
kinds.[FN#63] Female attendants clothed in dresses of various colours
were standing each according to her rank, with hands respectfully
joined. Some were reading plays and beautiful poems, others danced and
others performed with glittering fingers and flashing arms on various
instruments—the ivory lute, the ebony pipe and the silver
kettledrum. In short, all the means and appliances of pleasure and
enjoyment were there; and any description of the appearance of the
apartments, which were the wonder of the age, is impossible.
Then another veiled figure, the beautiful Princess Padmavati, came
up and disclosed herself, and dazzled the eyes of her delighted
Vajramukut. She led him into an alcove, made him sit down, rubbed
sandal powder upon his body, hung a garland of jasmine flowers round
his neck, sprinkled rose-water over his dress, and began to wave over
his head a fan of peacock feathers with a golden handle.
Said the prince, who despite all efforts could not entirely shake
off his unhappy habit of being modest, "Those very delicate hands of
yours are not fit to ply the pankha.[FN#64] Why do you take so much
trouble? I am cool and refreshed by the sight of you. Do give the fan
to me and sit down."
"Nay, great king!" replied Padmavati, with the most fascinating of
smiles, "you have taken so much trouble for my sake in coming here,
it is right that I perform service for you."
Upon which her favourite slave, taking the pankha from the hand of
the princess, exclaimed, "This is my duty. I will perform the service;
do you two enjoy yourselves!"
The lovers then began to chew betel, which, by the bye, they
disposed of in little agate boxes which they drew from their pockets,
and they were soon engaged in the tenderest conversation.
Here the Baital paused for a while, probably to take breath. Then
he resumed his tale as follows:
In the meantime, it became dawn; the princess concealed him; and
when night returned they again engaged in the same innocent
pleasures. Thus day after day sped rapidly by. Imagine, if you can,
the youth's felicity; he was of an ardent temperament, deeply
enamoured, barely a score of years old, and he had been strictly
brought up by serious parents. He therefore resigned himself entirely
to the siren for whom he willingly forgot the world, and he wondered
at his good fortune, which had thrown in his way a conquest richer
than all the mines of Meru.[FN#65] He could not sufficiently admire
his Padmavati's grace, beauty, bright wit, and numberless
accomplishments. Every morning, for vanity's sake, he learned from her
a little useless knowledge in verse as well as prose, for instance,
the saying of the poet—
Enjoy the present hour, 'tis shine; be this, O man, thy law;
Who e'er resew the yester? Who the morrow e'er foresaw?
And this highly philosophical axiom—
Eat, drink, and love—the rest's not worth a fillip.
"By means of which he hoped, Raja Vikram!" said the demon, not
heeding his royal carrier's "ughs" and "poohs," "to become in course
of time almost as clever as his mistress."
Padmavati, being, as you have seen, a maiden of superior mind, was
naturally more smitten by her lover's dulness than by any other of his
qualities; she adored it, it was such a contrast to herself.[FN#66] At
first she did what many clever women do—she invested him with the
brightness of her own imagination. Still water, she pondered, runs
deep; certainly under this disguise must lurk a brilliant fancy, a
penetrating but a mature and ready judgment—are they not written by
nature's hand on that broad high brow? With such lovely mustachios can
he be aught but generous, noble-minded, magnanimous? Can such eyes
belong to any but a hero? And she fed the delusion. She would smile
upon him with intense fondness, when, after wasting hours over a few
lines of poetry, he would misplace all the adjectives and barbarously
entreat the metre. She laughed with gratification, when, excited by
the bright sayings that fell from her lips, the youth put forth some
platitude, dim as the lamp in the expiring fire-fly. When he slipped
in grammar she saw malice under it, when he retailed a borrowed jest
she called it a good one, and when he used—as princes sometimes will
—bad language, she discovered in it a charming simplicity.
At first she suspected that the stratagems which had won her heart
were the results of a deep-laid plot proceeding from her lover. But
clever women are apt to be rarely sharp-sighted in every matter which
concerns themselves. She frequently determined that a third was in the
secret. She therefore made no allusion to it. Before long the
enamoured Vajramukut had told her everything, beginning with the
diatribe against love pronounced by the minister's son, and ending
with the solemn warning that she, the pretty princess, would some day
or other play her husband a foul trick.
"If I do not revenge myself upon him," thought the beautiful
Padmavati, smiling like an angel as she listened to the youth's
confidence, "may I become a gardener's ass in the next birth!"
Having thus registered a vow, she broke silence, and praised to the
skies the young pradhan's wisdom and sagacity; professed herself
ready from gratitude to become his slave, and only hoped that one day
or other she might meet that true friend by whose skill her soul had
been gratified in its dearest desire. "Only," she concluded, "I am
convinced that now my Vajramukut knows every corner of his little
Padmavati's heart, he will never expect her to do anything but love,
admire, adore and kiss him!'' Then suiting the action to the word, she
convinced him that the young minister had for once been too crabbed
and cynic in his philosophy.
But after the lapse of a month Vajramukut, who had eaten and drunk
and slept a great deal too much, and who had not once hunted, became
bilious in body and in mind melancholic. His face turned yellow, and
so did the whites of his eyes; he yawned, as liver patients generally
do, complained occasionally of sick headaches, and lost his appetite:
he became restless and anxious, and once when alone at night he thus
thought aloud: "I have given up country, throne, home, and everything
else, but the friend by means of whom this happiness was obtained I
have not seen for the long length of thirty days. What will he say to
himself, and how can I know what has happened to him?"
In this state of things he was sitting, and in the meantime the
beautiful princess arrived. She saw through the matter, and lost not
a moment in entering upon it. She began by expressing her
astonishment at her lover's fickleness and fondness for change, and
when he was ready to wax wroth, and quoted the words of the sage, "A
barren wife may be superseded by another in the eighth year; she whose
children all die, in the tenth; she who brings forth only daughters,
in the eleventh; she who scolds, without delay," thinking that she
alluded to his love, she smoothed his temper by explaining that she
referred to his forgetting his friend. "How is it possible, O my
soul," she asked with the softest of voices, that thou canst happiness
here whilst thy heart is wandering there? Why didst thou conceal this
from me, O astute one? Was it for fear of distressing me? Think better
of thy wife than to suppose that she would ever separate thee from one
to whom we both owe so much!
"After this Padmavati advised, nay ordered, her lover to go forth
that night, and not to return till his mind was quite at ease, and she
begged him to take a few sweetmeats and other trifles as a little
token of her admiration and regard for the clever young man of whom
she had heard so much.
Vajramukut embraced her with a transport of gratitude, which so
inflamed her anger, that fearing lest the cloak of concealment might
fall from her countenance, she went away hurriedly to find the
greatest delicacies which her comfit boxes contained. Presently she
returned, carrying a bag of sweetmeats of every kind for her lover,
and as he rose up to depart, she put into his hand a little parcel of
sugar-plums especially intended for the friend; they were made up with
her own delicate fingers, and they would please, she flattered
herself, even his discriminating palate.
The young prince, after enduring a number of farewell embraces and
hopings for a speedy return, and last words ever beginning again,
passed safely through the palace gate, and with a relieved aspect
walked briskly to the house of the old nurse. Although it was midnight
his friend was still sitting on his mat.
The two young men fell upon one another's bosoms and embraced
affectionately. They then began to talk of matters nearest their
hearts. The Raja's son wondered at seeing the jaded and haggard looks
of his companion, who did not disguise that they were caused by his
anxiety as to what might have happened to his friend at the hand of so
talented and so superior a princess. Upon which Vajramukut, who now
thought Padmavati an angel, and his late abode a heaven, remarked with
formality—and two blunders to one quotation—that abilities
properly directed win for a man the happiness of both worlds.
The pradhan's son rolled his head.
"Again on your hobby-horse, nagging at talent whenever you find it
in others! " cried the young prince with a pun, which would have
delighted Padmavati. "Surely you are jealous of her!" he resumed,
anything but pleased with the dead silence that had received his
joke; "jealous of her cleverness, and of her love for me. She is the
very best creature in the world. Even you, woman-hater as you are,
would own it if you only knew all the kind messages she sent, and the
little pleasant surprise that she has prepared for you. There! take
and eat; they are made by her own dear hands!" cried the young Raja,
producing the sweetmeats. "As she herself taught me to say—
Thank God I am a man,
Not a philosopher!"
"The kind messages she sent me! The pleasant surprise she has
prepared for me!" repeated the minister's son in a hard, dry tone.
"My lord will be pleased to tell me how she heard of my name?"
"I was sitting one night," replied the prince, "in anxious thought
about you, when at that moment the princess coming in and seeing my
condition, asked, 'Why are you thus sad? Explain the cause to me.' I
then gave her an account of your cleverness, and when she heard it she
gave me permission to go and see you, and sent these sweetmeats for
you: eat them and I shall be pleased."
"Great king!" rejoined the young statesman, "one thing vouchsafe
to hear from me. You have not done well in that you have told my
name. You should never let a woman think that your left hand knows
the secret which she confided to your right, much less that you have
shared it to a third person. Secondly, you did evil in allowing her to
see the affection with which you honour your unworthy servant—a
woman ever hates her lover's or husband's friend."
"What could I do?" rejoined the young Raja, in a querulous tone of
voice. "When I love a woman I like to tell her everything—to have
no secrets from her—to consider her another self——"
"Which habit," interrupted the pradhan's son, "you will lose when
you are a little older, when you recognize the fact that love is
nothing but a bout, a game of skill between two individuals of
opposite sexes: the one seeking to gain as much, and the other
striving to lose as little as possible; and that the sharper of the
twain thus met on the chessboard must, in the long run, win. And
reticence is but a habit. Practise it for a year, and you will find it
harder to betray than to conceal your thoughts. It hath its joy also.
Is there no pleasure, think you, when suppressing an outbreak of
tender but fatal confidence in saying to yourself, 'O, if she only
knew this?' 'O, if she did but suspect that?' Returning, however, to
the sugar-plums, my life to a pariah's that they are poisoned!"
"Impossible!" exclaimed the prince, horror-struck at the thought;
"what you say, surely no one ever could do. If a mortal fears not his
fellow-mortal, at least he dreads the Deity."
"I never yet knew," rejoined the other, "what a woman in love does
fear. However, prince, the trial is easy. Come here, Muti!" cried he
to the old woman's dog, "and off with thee to that three-headed
kinsman of shine, that attends upon his amiable-looking
Having said this, he threw one of the sweetmeats to the dog; the
animal ate it, and presently writhing and falling down, died.
"The wretch! O the wretch!" cried Vajramukut, transported with
wonder and anger. " And I loved her! But now it is all over. I dare
not associate with such a calamity!"
"What has happened, my lord, has happened!" quoth the minister's
son calmly. "I was prepared for something of this kind from so
talented a princess. None commit such mistakes, such blunders, such
follies as your clever women; they cannot even turn out a crime
decently executed. O give me dulness with one idea, one aim, one
desire. O thrice blessed dulness that combines with happiness, power."
This time Vajramukut did not defend talent.
"And your slave did his best to warn you against perfidy. But now
my heart is at rest. I have tried her strength. She has attempted and
failed; the defeat will prevent her attempting again—just yet. But
let me ask you to put to yourself one question. Can you be happy
"Brother!" replied the prince, after a pause, "I cannot"; and he
blushed as he made the avowal.
"Well," replied the other, "better confess then conceal that fact;
we must now meet her on the battle-field, and beat her at her own
weapons—cunning. I do not willingly begin treachery with women,
because, in the first place, I don't like it; and secondly, I know
that they will certainly commence practicing it upon me, after which I
hold myself justified in deceiving them. And probably this will be a
good wife; remember that she intended to poison me, not you. During
the last month my fear has been lest my prince had run into the
tiger's brake. Tell me, my lord, when does the princess expect you to
return to her?"
"She bade me," said the young Raja, "not to return till my mind
was quite at ease upon the subject of m talented friend."
"This means that she expects you back to-morrow night, as you
cannot enter the palace before. And now I will retire to my cot, as
it is there that I am wont to ponder over my plans. Before dawn my
thought shall mature one which must place the beautiful Padmavati in
"A word before parting," exclaimed the prince "you know my father
has already chosen a spouse for me; what will he say if I bring home a
"In my humble opinion," said the minister's son rising to retire,
"woman is a monogamous, man a polygamous, creature, a fact scarcely
established in physio- logical theory, but very observable in
every-day practice For what said the poet?—
Divorce, friend! Re-wed thee! The spring draweth
And a wife's but an almanac—good for the year.
If your royal father say anything to you, refer him to what he
Reassured by these words, Vajramukut bade his friend a cordial
good-night and sought his cot, where he slept soundly, despite the
emotions of the last few hours. The next day passed somewhat slowly.
In the evening, when accompanying his master to the palace, the
minister's son gave him the following directions.
"Our object, dear my lord, is how to obtain possession of the
princess. Take, then, this trident, and hide it carefully when you
see her show the greatest love and affection. Conceal what has
happened, and when she, wondering at your calmness, asks about me,
tell her that last night I was weary and out of health, that illness
prevented my eating her sweetmeats, but that I shall eat them for
supper to-night. When she goes to sleep, then, taking off her jewels
and striking her left leg with the trident, instantly come away to me.
But should she lie awake, rub upon your thumb a little of this—do
not fear, it is only a powder of grubs fed on verdigris— and apply
it to her nostrils. It would make an elephant senseless, so be careful
how you approach it to your own face."
Vajramukut embraced his friend, and passed safely through the
palace gate. He found Padmavati awaiting him; she fell upon his bosom
and looked into his eyes, and deceived herself, as clever women will
do. Overpowered by her joy and satisfaction, she now felt certain that
her lover was hers eternally, and that her treachery had not been
discovered; so the beautiful princess fell into a deep sleep.
Then Vajramukut lost no time in doing as the minister's son had
advised, and slipped out of the room, carrying off Padmavati's jewels
and ornaments. His counsellor having inspected them, took up a sack
and made signs to his master to follow him. Leaving the horses and
baggage at the nurse's house, they walked to a burning-place outside
the city. The minister's son there buried his dress, together with
that of the prince, and drew from the sack the costume of a religious
ascetic: he assumed this himself, and gave to his companion that of a
disciple. Then quoth the guru (spiritual preceptor) to his chela
(pupil), "Go, youth, to the bazar, and sell these jewels, remembering
to let half the jewellers in the place see the things, and if any one
lay hold of thee, bring him to me."
Upon which, as day had dawned, Vajramukut carried the princess's
ornaments to the market, and entering the nearest goldsmith's shop,
offered to sell them, and asked what they were worth. As your majesty
well knows, gardeners, tailors, and goldsmiths are proverbially
dishonest, and this man was no exception to the rule. He looked at the
pupil's face and wondered, because he had brought articles whose value
he did not appear to know. A thought struck him that he might make a
bargain which would fill his coffers, so he offered about a thousandth
part of the price. This the pupil rejected, because he wished the
affair to go further. Then the goldsmith, seeing him about to depart,
sprang up and stood in the door way, threatening to call the officers
of justice if the young man refused to give up the valuables which he
said had lately been stolen from his shop. As the pupil only laughed
at this, the goldsmith thought seriously of executing his threat,
hesitating only because he knew that the officers of justice would
gain more than he could by that proceeding. As he was still in doubt a
shadow darkened his shop, and in entered the chief jeweller of the
city. The moment the ornaments were shown to him he recognized them,
and said, "These jewels belong to Raja Dantawat's daughter; I know
them well, as I set them only a few months ago!" Then he turned to the
disciple, who still held the valuables in his hand, and cried, "Tell
me truly whence you received them?"
While they were thus talking, a crowd of ten or twenty persons had
collected, and at length the report reached the superintendent of the
archers. He sent a soldier to bring before him the pupil, the
goldsmith, and the chief jeweller, together with the ornaments. And
when all were in the hall of justice, he looked at the jewels and said
to the young man, "Tell me truly, whence have you obtained these?"
"My spiritual preceptor," said Vajramukut, pretending great fear,
"who is now worshipping in the cemetery outside the town, gave me
these white stones, with an order to sell them. How know I whence he
obtained them? Dismiss me, my lord, for I am an innocent man."
"Let the ascetic be sent for," commanded the kotwal.[FN#69] Then,
having taken both of them, along with the jewels, into the presence of
King Dantawat, he related the whole circumstances.
"Master," said the king on hearing the statement, "whence have you
obtained these jewels?"
The spiritual preceptor, before deigning an answer, pulled from
under his arm the hide of a black antelope, which he spread out and
smoothed deliberately before using it as an asan.[FN#70] He then began
to finger a rosary of beads each as large as an egg, and after
spending nearly an hour in mutterings and in rollings of the head, he
looked fixedly at the Raja, and repined:
"By Shiva! great king, they are mine own. On the fourteenth of the
dark half of the moon at night, I had gone into a place where dead
bodies are burned, for the purpose of accomplishing a witch's
incantation. After long and toilsome labour she appeared, but her
demeanour was so unruly that I was forced to chastise her. I struck
her with this, my trident, on the left leg, if memory serves me. As
she continued to be refractory, in order to punish her I took off all
her jewels and clothes, and told her to go where she pleased. Even
this had little effect upon her—never have I looked upon so
perverse a witch. In this way the jewels came into my possession."
Raja Dantawat was stunned by these words. He begged the ascetic
not to leave the palace for a while, and forthwith walked into the
private apartments of the women. Happening first to meet the queen
dowager, he said to her, "Go, without losing a minute, O my mother,
and look at Padmavati's left leg, and see if there is a mark or not,
and what sort of a mark!" Presently she returned, and coming to the
king said, "Son, I find thy daughter lying upon her bed, and
complaining that she has met with an accident; and indeed Padmavati
must be in great pain. I found that some sharp instrument with three
points had wounded her. The girl says that a nail hurt her, but I
never yet heard of a nail making three holes. However, we must all
hasten, or there will be erysipelas, tumefaction, gangrene,
mortification, amputation, and perhaps death in the house," concluded
the old queen, hurrying away in the pleasing anticipation of these
For a moment King Dantawat's heart was ready to break. But he was
accustomed to master his feelings; he speedily applied the reins of
reflection to the wild steed of passion. He thought to himself, "the
affairs of one's household, the intentions of one's heart, and
whatever one's losses may be, should not be disclosed to any one.
Since Padmavati is a witch, she is no longer my daughter. I will
verily go forth and consult the spiritual preceptor."
With these words the king went outside, where the guru was still
sitting upon his black hide, making marks with his trident on the
floor. Having requested that the pupil might be sent away, and having
cleared the room, he said to the jogi, "O holy man! what punishment
for the heinous crime of witchcraft is awarded to a woman in the
Dharma- Shastra [FN#71]?"
"Greet king!" replied the devotee, "in the Dharma Shastra it is
thus written: 'If a Brahman, a cow, a woman, a child, or any other
person whatsoever who may be dependent on us, should be guilty of a
perfidious act, their punishment is that they be banished the
country.' However much they may deserve death, we must not spill
their blood, as Lakshmi[FN#72] flies in horror from the deed."
Hearing these words the Raja dismissed the guru with many thanks
and large presents. He waited till nightfall and then ordered a band
of trusty men to seize Padmavati without alarming the household, and
to carry her into a distant jungle full of fiends, tigers, and bears,
and there to abandon her.
In the meantime, the ascetic and his pupil hurrying to the cemetery
resumed their proper dresses; they then went to the old nurse's
house, rewarded her hospitality till she wept bitterly, girt on their
weapons, and mounting their horses, followed the party which issued
from the gate of King Dantawat's palace. And it may easily be believed
that they found little difficulty in persuading the poor girl to
exchange her chance in the wild jungle for the prospect of becoming
Vajramukut's wife—lawfully wedded at Benares. She did not even ask
if she was to have a rival in the house,—a question which women, you
know, never neglect to put under usual circumstances. After some days
the two pilgrims of one love arrived at the house of their fathers,
and to all, both great and small, excess in joy came.
"Now, Raja Vikram!" said the Baital, "you have not spoken much;
doubtless you are engrossed by the interest of a story wherein a man
beats a woman at her own weapon—deceit. But I warn you that you will
assuredly fall into Narak (the infernal regions) if you do not make up
your mind upon and explain this matter. Who was the most to blame
amongst these four? the lover[FN#73] the lover's friend, the girl, or
"For my part I think Padmavati was the worst, she being at the
bottom of all their troubles," cried Dharma Dhwaj. The king said
something about young people and the two senses of seeing and
hearing, but his son's sentiment was so sympathetic that he at once
pardoned the interruption. At length, determined to do justice
despite himself, Vikram said, "Raja Dantawat is the person most at
"In what way was he at fault? " asked the Baital curiously.
King Vikram gave him this reply: "The Prince Vajramukut being
tempted of the love-god was insane, and therefore not responsible for
his actions. The minister's son performed his master's business
obediently, without considering causes or asking questions—a very
excellent quality in a dependent who is merely required to do as he
is bid. With respect to the young woman, I have only to say that she
was a young woman, and thereby of necessity a possible murderess. But
the Raja, a prince, a man of a certain age and experience, a father of
eight! He ought never to have been deceived by so shallow a trick, nor
should he, without reflection, have banished his daughter from the
"Gramercy to you!" cried the Vampire, bursting into a discordant
shout of laughter, "I now return to my tree. By my tail! I never yet
heard a Raja so readily condemn a Raja." With these words he slipped
out of the cloth, leaving it to hang empty over the great king's
Vikram stood for a moment, fixed to the spot with blank dismay.
Presently, recovering himself, he retraced his steps, followed by his
son, ascended the sires-tree, tore down the Baital, packed him up as
before, and again set out upon his way.
Soon afterwards a voice sounded behind the warrior king's back,
and began to tell another true story.
In the great city of Bhogavati dwelt, once upon a time, a young
prince, concerning whom I may say that he strikingly resembled this
amiable son of your majesty.
Raja Vikram was silent, nor did he acknowledge the Baital's
indirect compliment. He hated flattery, but he liked, when flattered,
to be flattered in his own person; a feature in their royal patron's
character which the Nine Gems of Science had turned to their own
Now the young prince Raja Ram (continued the tale teller) had an
old father, concerning whom I may say that he was exceedingly unlike
your Rajaship, both as a man and as a parent. He was fond of hunting,
dicing, sleeping by day, drinking at night, and eating perpetual
tonics, while he delighted in the idleness of watching nautch girls,
and the vanity of falling in love. But he was adored by his children
because he took the trouble to win their hearts. He did not lay it
down as a law of heaven that his offspring would assuredly go to
Patala if they neglected the duty of bestowing upon him without cause
all their affections, as your moral, virtuous, and highly respectable
fathers are only too apt——. Aie! Aie!
These sounds issued from the Vampire's lips as the warrior king,
speechless with wrath, passed his hand behind his back, and viciously
twisted up a piece of the speaker's skin. This caused the Vampire to
cry aloud, more however, it would appear, in derision than in real
suffering, for he presently proceeded with the same subject.
Fathers, great king, may be divided into three kinds; and be it
said aside, that mothers are the same. Firstly, we have the parent of
many ideas, amusing, pleasant, of course poor, and the idol of his
children. Secondly, there is the parent with one idea and a half.
This sort of man would, in your place, say to himself, "That demon
fellow speaks a manner of truth. I am not above learning from him,
despite his position in life. I will carry out his theory, just to see
how far it goes"; and so saying, he wends his way home, and treats
his young ones with prodigious kindness for a time, but it is not
lasting. Thirdly, there is the real one-idea'd type of
parent-yourself, O warrior king Vikram, an admirable example. You
learn in youth what you are taught: for instance, the blessed precept
that the green stick is of the trees of Paradise; and in age you
practice what you have learned. You cannot teach yourselves anything
before your beards sprout, and when they grow stiff you cannot be
taught by others. If any one attempt to change your opinions you cry,
What is new is not true,
What is true is not new.
and you rudely pull his hand from the subject. Yet have you your
uses like other things of earth. In life you are good working camels
for the mill-track, and when you die your ashes are not worse compost
than those of the wise.
Your Rajaship will observe (continued the Vampire, as Vikram began
to show symptoms of ungovernable anger) that I have been concise in
treating this digression. Had I not been so, it would have led me far
indeed from my tale. Now to return.
When the old king became air mixed with air, the young king,
though he found hardly ten pieces of silver in the paternal treasury
and legacies for thousands of golden ounces, yet mourned his loss
with the deepest grief. He easily explained to himself the reckless
emptiness of the royal coffers as a proof of his dear kind parent's
goodness, because he loved him.
But the old man had left behind him, as he could not carry it off
with him, a treasure more valuable than gold and silver: one
Churaman, a parrot, who knew the world, and who besides discoursed in
the most correct Sanscrit. By sage counsel and wise guidance this
admirable bird soon repaired his young master's shattered fortunes.
One day the prince said, "Parrot, thou knowest everything: tell me
where there is a mate fit for me. The shastras inform us, respecting
the choice of a wife, 'She who is not descended from his paternal or
maternal ancestors within the sixth degree is eligible by a high caste
man for nuptials. In taking a wife let him studiously avoid the
following families, be they ever so great, or ever so rich in kine,
goats, sheep, gold, or grain: the family which has omitted prescribed
acts of devotion; that which has produced no male children; that in
which the Veda (scripture) has not been read; that which has thick
hair on the body; and that in which members have been subject to
hereditary disease. Let a person choose for his wife a girl whose
person has no defect; who has an agreeable name; who walks gracefully,
like a young elephant; whose hair and teeth are moderate in quantity
and in size; and whose body is of exquisite softness.'"
"Great king," responded the parrot Churaman, "there is in the
country of Magadh a Raja, Magadheshwar by name, and he has a daughter
called Chandravati. You will marry her; she is very learned, and, what
is better far, very fait. She is of yellow colour, with a nose like
the flower of the sesamum; her legs are taper, like the plantain-tree;
her eyes are large, like the principal leaf of the lotus; her
eye-brows stretch towards her ears; her lips are red, like the young
leaves of the mango-tree; her face is like the full moon; her voice is
like the sound of the cuckoo; her arms reach to her knees; her throat
is like the pigeon's; her flanks are thin, like those of the lion; her
hair hangs in curls only down to her waist; her teeth are like the
seeds of the pomegranate; and her gait is that of the drunken elephant
or the goose."
On hearing the parrot's speech, the king sent for an astrologer,
and asked him, "Whom shall I marry?" The wise man, having consulted
his art, replied, "Chandravati is the name of the maiden, and your
marriage with her will certainly take place." Thereupon the young
Raja, though he had never seen his future queen, became incontinently
enamoured of her. He summoned a Brahman, and sent him to King
Magadheshwar, saying, "If you arrange satisfactorily this affair of
our marriage we will reward you amply"-a promise which lent wings to
Now it so happened that this talented and beautiful princess had a
jay,[FN#74] whose name was Madan-manjari or Love-garland. She also
possessed encyclopaedic knowledge after her degree, and, like the
parrot, she spoke excellent Sanscrit.
Be it briefly said, O warrior king-for you think that I am talking
fables—that in the days of old, men had the art of making birds
discourse in human language. The invention is attributed to a great
philosopher, who split their tongues, and after many generations
produced a selected race born with those members split. He altered
the shapes of their skulls by fixing ligatures behind the occiput,
which caused the sinciput to protrude, their eyes to become
prominent, and their brains to master the art of expressing thoughts
But this wonderful discovery, like those of great philosophers
generally, had in it a terrible practical flaw The birds beginning to
speak, spoke wisely and so well, they told the truth so persistently,
they rebuked their brethren of the featherless skins so openly, they
flattered them so little and they counselled them so much, that
mankind presently grew tired of hearing them discourse. Thus the art
gradually fell into desuetude, and now it is numbered with the things
One day the charming Princess Chandravati was sitting in
confidential conversation with her jay. The dialogue was not
remarkable, for maidens in all ages seldom consult their confidantes
or speculate upon the secrets of futurity, or ask to have dreams
interpreted, except upon one subject. At last the princess said, for
perhaps the hundredth time that month, "Where, O jay, is there a
husband worthy of me?"
"Princess," replied Madan-manjari, "I am happy at length to be
able as willing to satisfy your just curiosity. For just it is, though
the delicacy of our sex—"
"Now, no preaching!" said the maiden; "or thou shalt have salt
instead of sugar for supper."
Jays, your Rajaship, are fond of sugar. So the confidante retained
a quantity of good advice which she was about to produce, and
"I now see clearly the ways of Fortune. Raja Ram, king of
Bhogavati, is to be thy husband. He shall be happy in thee and thou
in him, for he is young and handsome, rich and generous,
good-tempered, not too clever, and without a chance of being an
Thereupon the princess, although she had never seen her future
husband, at once began to love him. In fact, though neither had set
eyes upon the other, both were mutually in love.
"How can that be, sire?" asked the young Dharma Dhwaj of his
father. " I always thought that—"
The great Vikram interrupted his son, and bade him not to ask silly
questions. Thus he expected to neutralize the evil effects of the
Baital's doctrine touching the amiability of parents unlike himself.
Now, as both these young people (resumed the Baital) were of
princely family and well to do in the world, the course of their love
was unusually smooth. When the Brahman sent by Raja Ram had reached
Magadh, and had delivered his King's homage to the Raja Magadheshwar,
the latter received him with distinction, and agreed to his proposal.
The beautiful princess's father sent for a Brahman of his own, and
charging him with nuptial gifts and the customary presents, sent him
back to Bhogavati in company with the other envoy, and gave him this
order, "Greet Raja Ram, on my behalf, and after placing the tilak or
mark upon his forehead, return here with all speed. When you come back
I will get all things ready for the marriage."
Raja Ram, on receiving the deputation, was greatly pleased, and
after generously rewarding the Brahmans and making all the necessary
preparations, he set out in state for the land of Magadha, to claim
In due season the ceremony took place with feasting and bands of
music, fireworks and illuminations, rehearsals of scripture, songs,
entertainments, processions, and abundant noise. And hardly had the
turmeric disappeared from the beautiful hands and feet of the bride,
when the bridegroom took an affectionate leave of his new parents—he
had not lived long in the house—and receiving the dowry and the
bridal gifts, set out for his own country.
Chandravati was dejected by leaving her mother, and therefore she
was allowed to carry with her the jay, Madanmanian. She soon told her
husband the wonderful way in which she had first heard his name, and
he related to her the advantage which he had derived from
confabulation with Churaman, his parrot.
"Then why do we not put these precious creatures into one cage,
after marrying them according to the rites of the angelic marriage
(Gandharva-lagana)?" said the charming queen. Like most brides, she
was highly pleased to find an opportunity of making a match.
"Ay! why not, love ? Surely they cannot live happy in what the
world calls single blessedness," replied the young king. As
bridegrooms sometimes are for a short time, he was very warm upon the
subject of matrimony.
Thereupon, without consulting the parties chiefly concerned in
their scheme, the master and mistress, after being comfortably
settled at the end of their journey, caused a large cage to be
brought, and put into it both their favourites.
Upon which Churaman the parrot leaned his head on one side and
directed a peculiar look at the jay. But Madan- manjari raised her
beak high in the air, puffed through it once or twice, and turned
away her face in extreme disdain.
"Perhaps," quoth the parrot, at length breaking silence, "you will
tell me that you have no desire to be married?"
"Probably," replied the jay.
"And why?" asked the male bird.
"Because I don't choose," replied the female.
"Truly a feminine form of resolution this," ejaculated the parrot.
"I will borrow my master's words and call it a woman's reason, that is
to say, no reason at all. Have you any objection to be more
"None whatever," retorted the jay, provoked by the rude innuendo
into telling more plainly than politely exactly what she thought;
"none whatever, sir parrot. You he-things are all of you sinful,
treacherous, deceitful, selfish, devoid of conscience, and accustomed
to sacrifice us, the weaker sex, to your smallest desire or
"Of a truth, fair lady," quoth the young Raja Ram to his bride,
"this pet of thine is sufficiently impudent."
"Let her words be as wind in thine ear, master," interrupted the
parrot. "And pray, Mistress Jay, what are you she-things but
treacherous, false, ignorant, and avaricious beings, whose only wish
in this world is to prevent life being as pleasant as it might be?"
"Verily, my love," said the beautiful Chandravati to her
bridegroom, "this thy bird has a habit of expressing his opinions in
a very free and easy way."
"I can prove what I assert," whispered the jay in the ear of the
"We can confound their feminine minds by an anecdote," whispered
the parrot in the ear of the prince.
Briefly, King Vikram, it was settled between the twain that each
should establish the truth of what it had advanced by an illustration
in the form of a story.
Chandravati claimed, and soon obtained, precedence for the jay.
Then the wonderful bird, Madan-manjari, began to speak as follows:-
I have often told thee, O queen, that before coming to thy feet, my
mistress was Ratnawati, the daughter of a rich trader, the dearest,
the sweetest, the—-
Here the jay burst into tears, and the mistress was sympathetically
affected. Presently the speaker resumed—-
However, I anticipate. In the city of Ilapur there was a wealthy
merchant, who was without offspring; on this account he was
continually fasting and going on pilgrimage, and when at home he was
ever engaged in reading the Puranas and in giving alms to the
At length, by favour of the Deity, a son was born to this merchant,
who celebrated his birth with great pomp and rejoicing, and gave
large gifts to Brahmans and to bards, and distributed largely to the
hungry, the thirsty, and the poor. When the boy was five years old he
had him taught to read, and when older he was sent to a guru, who had
formerly himself been a student, and who was celebrated as teacher and
In the course of time the merchant's son grew up. Praise be to
Brahma! what a wonderful youth it was, with a face like a monkey's,
legs like a stork's, and a back like a camel's. You know the old
Expect thirty-two villanies from the limping, and eighty
from the one-eyed man,
But when the hunchback comes, say "Lord defend us!"
Instead of going to study, he went to gamble with other
ne'er-do-weels, to whom he talked loosely, and whom he taught to be
bad-hearted as himself. He made love to every woman, and despite his
ugliness, he was not unsuccessful. For they are equally fortunate who
are very handsome or very ugly, in so far as they are both remarkable
and remarked. But the latter bear away the palm. Beautiful men begin
well with women, who do all they can to attract them, love them as the
apples of their eyes, discover them to be fools, hold them to be their
equals, deceive them, and speedily despise them. It is otherwise with
the ugly man, who, in consequence of his homeliness, must work his
wits and take pains with himself, and become as pleasing as he is
capable of being, till women forget his ape's face, bird's legs, and
The hunchback, moreover, became a Tantri, so as to complete his
villanies. He was duly initiated by an apostate Brahman, made a
declaration that he renounced all the ceremonies of his old religion,
and was delivered from their yoke, and proceeded to perform in token
of joy an abominable rite. In company with eight men and eight women-a
Brahman female, a dancing girl, a weaver's daughter, a woman of ill
fame, a washerwoman, a barber's wife, a milkmaid, and the daughter of
a land-owner- choosing the darkest time of night and the most secret
part of the house, he drank with them, was sprinkled and anointed, and
went through many ignoble ceremonies, such as sitting nude upon a
dead body. The teacher informed him that he was not to indulge shame,
or aversion to anything, nor to prefer one thing to another, nor to
regard caste, ceremonial cleanness or uncleanness, but freely to enjoy
all the pleasures of sense-that is, of course, wine and us, since we
are the representatives of the wife of Cupid, and wine prevents the
senses from going astray. And whereas holy men, holding that the
subjugation or annihilation of the passions is essential to final
beatitude, accomplish this object by bodily austerities, and by
avoiding temptation, he proceeded to blunt the edge of the passions
with excessive indulgence. And he jeered at the pious, reminding them
that their ascetics are safe only in forests, and while keeping a
perpetual fast; but that he could subdue his passions in the very
presence of what they most desired.
Presently this excellent youth's father died, leaving him immense
wealth. He blunted his passions so piously and so vigorously, that in
very few years his fortune was dissipated. Then he turned towards his
neighbour's goods and prospered for a time, till being discovered
robbing, he narrowly escaped the stake. At length he exclaimed, "Let
the gods perish! the rascals send me nothing but ill luck!" and so
saying he arose and fled from his own country.
Chance led that villain hunchback to the city of Chandrapur,
where, hearing the name of my master Hemgupt, he recollected that one
of his father's wealthiest correspondents was so called. Thereupon,
with his usual audacity, he presented himself at the house, walked in,
and although he was clothed in tatters, introduced himself, told his
father's name and circumstances, and wept bitterly.
The good man was much astonished, and not less grieved, to see the
son of his old friend in such woful plight. He rose up, however,
embraced the youth, and asked the reason of his coming.
"I freighted a vessel," said the false hunchback, "for the purpose
of trading to a certain land. Having gone there, I disposed of my
merchandise, and, taking another cargo, I was on my voyage home.
Suddenly a great storm arose, and the vessel was wrecked, and I
escaped on a plank, and after a time arrived here. But I am ashamed,
since I have lost all my wealth, and I cannot show my face in this
plight in my own city. My excellent father would have consoled me with
his pity. But now that I have carried him and my mother to
Ganges,[FN#75] every one will turn against me; they will rejoice in my
misfortunes, they will accuse me of folly and recklessness— alas!
alas! I am truly miserable."
My dear master was deceived by the cunning of the wretch. He
offered him hospitality, which was readily enough accepted, and he
entertained him for some time as a guest. Then, having reason to be
satisfied with his conduct, Hemgupt admitted him to his secrets, and
finally made him a partner in his business. Briefly, the villain
played his cards so well, that at last the merchant said to himself:
"I have had for years an anxiety and a calamity in my house. My
neighbours whisper things to my disadvantage, and those who are
bolder speak out with astonishment amongst themselves, saying, 'At
seven or eight, people marry their daughters, and this indeed is the
appointment of the law: that period is long since gone; she is now
thirteen or fourteen years old, and she is very tall and lusty,
resembling a married woman of thirty. How can her father eat his rice
with comfort and sleep with satisfaction, whilst such a disreputable
thing exists in his house? At present he is exposed to shame, and his
deceased friends are suffering through his retaining a girl from
marriage beyond the period which nature has prescribed.' And now,
while I am sitting quietly at home, the Bhagwan (Deity) removes all my
uneasiness: by his favour such an opportunity occurs. It is not right
to delay. It is best that I shall give my daughter in marriage to him.
Whatever can be done to-day is best; who knows what may happen
"Thus thinking, the old man went to his wife and said to her,
"Birth, marriage, and death are all under the direction of the gods;
can anyone say when they will be ours? We want for our daughter a
young man who is of good birth, rich and handsome, clever and
honourable. But we do not find him. If the bridegroom be faulty, thou
sayest, all will go wrong. I cannot put a string round the neck of our
daughter and throw her into the ditch. If, however, thou think well of
the merchant's son, now my partner, we will celebrate Ratnawati's
marriage with him."
The wife, who had been won over by the hunchback's hypocrisy, was
also pleased, and replied, "My lord! when the Deity so plainly
indicates his wish, we should do it; since, though we have sat
quietly at home, the desire of our hearts is accomplished. It is best
that no delay be made: and, having quickly summoned the family
priest, and having fixed upon a propitious planetary conjunction,
that the marriage be celebrated."
Then they called their daughter—ah, me! what a beautiful being
she was, and worthy the love of a Gandharva (demigod). Her long hair,
purple with the light of youth, was glossy as the bramra's[FN#76]
wing; her brow was pure and clear as the agate; the ocean-coral looked
pale beside her lips, and her teeth were as two chaplets of pearls.
Everything in her was formed to be loved. Who could look into her eyes
without wishing to do it again? Who could hear her voice without
hoping that such music would sound once more? And she was good as she
was fair. Her father adored her; her mother, though a middle-aged
woman, was not envious or jealous of her; her relatives doted on her,
and her friends could find no fault with her. I should never end were
I to tell her precious qualities. Alas, alas ! my poor Ratnawati!
So saying, the jay wept abundant tears; then she resumed:
When her parents informed my mistress of their resolution, she
replied, "Sadhu-it is well!" She was not like most young women, who
hate nothing so much as a man whom their seniors order them to love.
She bowed her head and promised obedience, although, as she afterwards
told her mother, she could hardly look at her intended, on account of
his prodigious ugliness. But presently the hunchback's wit surmounted
her disgust. She was grateful to him for his attention to her father
and mother; she esteemed him for his moral and religious conduct; she
pitied him for his misfortunes, and she finished with forgetting his
face, legs, and back in her admiration of what she supposed to be his
She had vowed before marriage faithfully to perform all the duties
of a wife, however distasteful to her they might be; but after the
nuptials, which were not long deferred, she was not surprised to find
that she loved her husband. Not only did she omit to think of his
features and figure; I verily believe that she loved him the more for
his repulsiveness. Ugly, very ugly men prevail over women for two
reasons. Firstly, we begin with repugnance, which in the course of
nature turns to affection; and we all like the most that which, when
unaccustomed to it, we most disliked. Hence the poet says, with as
much truth as is in the male:
Never despair, O man! when woman's spite
Detests thy name and sickens at thy sight:
Sometime her heart shall learn to love thee more
For the wild hatred which it felt before,
Secondly, the very ugly man appears, deceitfully enough, to think
little of his appearance, and he will give himself the trouble to
pursue a heart because he knows that the heart will not follow after
him. Moreover, we women (said the jay) are by nature pitiful, and
this our enemies term a "strange perversity." A widow is generally
disconsolate if she loses a little, wizen-faced, shrunken shanked,
ugly, spiteful, distempered thing that scolded her and quarrelled
with her, and beat her and made her hours bitter; whereas she will
follow her husband to Ganges with exemplary fortitude if he was
brave, handsome, generous—-
"Either hold your tongue or go on with your story," cried the
warrior king, in whose mind these remarks awakened disagreeable
"Hi! hi! hi!" laughed the demon; "I will obey your majesty, and
make Madan-manjari, the misanthropical jay, proceed."
Yes, she loved the hunchback; and how wonderful is our love! quoth
the jay. A light from heaven which rains happiness on this dull, dark
earth! A spell falling upon the spirit, which reminds us of a higher
existence! A memory of bliss! A present delight! An earnest of future
felicity! It makes hideousness beautiful and stupidity clever, old age
young and wickedness good, moroseness amiable, and low-mindedness
magnanimous, perversity pretty and vulgarity piquant. Truly it is
sovereign alchemy and excellent flux for blending contradictions is
our love, exclaimed the jay.
And so saying, she cast a triumphant look at the parrot, who only
remarked that he could have desired a little more originality in her
For some months (resumed Madan-manjari), the bride and the
bridegroom lived happily together in Hemgupt's house. But it is said:
Never yet did the tiger become a lamb;
and the hunchback felt that the edge of his passions again wanted
blunting. He reflected, "Wisdom is exemption from attachment, and
affection for children, wife, and home." Then he thus addressed my
poor young mistress:
"I have been now in thy country some years, and I have heard no
tidings of my own family, hence my mind is sad, I have told thee
everything about myself; thou must now ask thy mother leave for me to
go to my own city, and, if thou wishest, thou mayest go with me."
Ratnawati lost no time in saying to her mother, "My husband wishes
to visit his own country; will you so arrange that he may not be
pained about this matter?"
The mother went to her husband, and said, "Your son-in-law desires
leave to go to his own country."
Hemgupt replied, " Very well; we will grant him leave. One has no
power over another man's son. We will do what he wishes."
The parents then called their daughter, and asked her to tell them
her real desire-whether she would go to her father-in-law's house, or
would remain in her mother's home. She was abashed at this question,
and could not answer; but she went back to her husband, and said, "As
my father and mother have declared that you should do as you like, do
not leave me behind."
Presently the merchant summoned his son-in-law, and having
bestowed great wealth upon him, allowed him to depart. He also bade
his daughter farewell, after giving her a palanquin and a female
slave. And the parents took leave of them with wailing and bitter
tears; their hearts were like to break. And so was mine.
For some days the hunchback travelled quietly along with his wife,
in deep thought. He could not take her to his city, where she would
find out his evil life, and the fraud which he had passed upon her
father. Besides which, although he wanted her money, he by no means
wanted her company for life. After turning on many projects in his
evil-begotten mind, he hit upon the following:
He dismissed the palanquin-bearers when halting at a little shed in
the thick jungle through which they were travelling, and said to his
wife, "This is a place of danger; give me thy jewels, and I will hide
them in my waist-shawl. When thou reachest the city thou canst wear
them again." She then gave up to him all her ornaments, which were of
great value. Thereupon he inveigled the slave girl into the depths of
the forest, where he murdered her, and left her body to be devoured by
wild beasts. Lastly, returning to my poor mistress, he induced her to
leave the hut with him, and pushed her by force into a dry well, after
which exploit he set out alone with his ill-gotten wealth, walking
towards his own city.
In the meantime, a wayfaring man, who was passing through that
jungle, hearing the sound of weeping, stood still, and began to say
to himself, "How came to my ears the voice of a mortal's grief in
this wild wood?" then followed the direction of the noise, which led
him a pit, and peeping over the side, he saw a woman crying at the
bottom. The traveller at once loosened his gird cloth, knotted it to
his turband, and letting down the line pulled out the poor bride. He
asked her who she was and how she came to fall into that well. She
replied, "I am the daughter of Hemgupt, the wealthiest merchant in the
city of Chandrapur; and I was journeying wit my husband to his own
country, when robbers set upon us and surrounded us. They slew my
slave girl, the threw me into a well, and having bound my husband they
took him away, together with my jewels. I have no tidings of him, nor
he of me." And so saying, she burst into tears and lamentations.
The wayfaring man believed her tale, and conducted her to her
home, where she gave the same account of the accident which had
befallen her, ending with, "beyond this, I know not if they have
killed my husband, or have let him go." The father thus soothed her
grief "Daughter! have no anxiety; thy husband is alive, and by the
will of the Deity he will come to thee in a few days. Thieves take
men's money, not their lives." Then the parents presented her with
ornaments more precious than those which she had lost; and summoning
their relations and friends, they comforted her to the best of their
And so did I. The wicked hunchback had, meanwhile, returned to his
own city, where he was excellently well received, because he brought
much wealth with him. His old associates flocked around him rejoicing;
and he fell into the same courses which had beggared him before.
Gambling and debauchery soon blunted his passions, and emptied his
purse. Again his boon companions, finding him without a broken cowrie,
drove him from their doors, he stole and was flogged for theft; and
lastly, half famished, he fled the city. Then he said to himself, "I
must go to my father-in-law, and make the excuse that a grandson has
been born to him, and that I have come to offer him congratulations on
Imagine, however, his fears and astonishment, when, as he entered
the house, his wife stood before him. At first he thought it was a
ghost, and turned to run away, but she went out to him and said,
"Husband, be not troubled ! I have told my father that thieves came
upon us, and killed the slave girl and robbed me and threw me into a
well, and bound thee and carried thee off. Tell the same story, and
put away all anxious feelings. Come up and change thy tattered
garments-alas! some misfortune hath befallen thee. But console
thyself; all is now well, since thou art returned to me, and fear not,
for the house is shine, and I am thy slave."
The wretch, with all his hardness of heart, could scarcely refrain
from tears. He followed his wife to her room, where she washed his
feet, caused him to bathe, dressed him in new clothes, and placed food
before him. When her parents returned, she presented him to their
embrace, saying in a glad way, "Rejoice with me, O my father and
mother! the robbers have at length allowed him to come back to us." Of
course the parents were deceived, they are mostly a purblind race; and
Hemgupt, showing great favour to his worthless son-in-law, exclaimed,
"Remain with us, my son, and be happy!"
For two or three months the hunchback lived quietly with his wife,
treating her kindly and even affectionately. But this did not last
long. He made acquaintance with a band of thieves, and arranged his
plans with them.
After a time, his wife one night came to sleep by his side, having
put on all her jewels. At midnight, when he saw that she was fast
asleep, he struck her with a knife so that she died. Then he admitted
his accomplices, who savagely murdered Hemgupt and his wife; and with
their assistance he carried off any valuable article upon which he
could lay his hands. The ferocious wretch! As he passed my cage he
looked at it, and thought whether he had time to wring my neck. The
barking of a dog saved my life; but my mistress, my poor Ratnawati-ah,
me! ah, me!—
"Queen," said the jay, in deepest grief, "all this have I seen with
mine own eyes, and have heard with mine own ears. It affected me in
early life, and gave me a dislike for the society of the other sex.
With due respect to you, I have resolved to remain an old maid. Let
your majesty reflect, what crime had my poor mistress committed? A
male is of the same disposition as a highway robber; and she who forms
friendship with such an one, cradles upon her bosom a black and
"Sir Parrot," said the jay, turning to her wooer, "I have spoken. I
have nothing more to say, but that you he-things are all a
treacherous, selfish, wicked race, created for the express purpose of
working our worldly woe, and—"
"When a female, O my king, asserts that she has nothing more to
say, but," broke in Churaman, the parrot with a loud dogmatical
voice, "I know that what she has said merely whets her tongue for
what she is about to say. This person has surely spoken long enough
and drearily enough."
"Tell me, then, O parrot," said the king, "what faults there may be
in the other sex."
"I will relate," quoth Churaman, "an occurrence which in my early
youth determined me to live and to die an old bachelor."
When quite a young bird, and before my schooling began, I was
caught in the land of Malaya, and was sold to a very rich merchant
called Sagardati, a widower with one daughter, the lady Jayashri. As
her father spent all his days and half his nights in his
counting-house, conning his ledgers and scolding his writers, that
young woman had more liberty than is generally allowed to those of
her age, and a mighty bad use she made of it.
O king! men commit two capital mistakes in rearing the "domestic
calamity," and these are over-vigilance and under-vigilance. Some
parents never lose sight of their daughters, suspect them of all evil
intentions, and are silly enough to show their suspicions, which is
an incentive to evil-doing. For the weak-minded things do naturally
say, "I will be wicked at once. What do I now but suffer all the pains
and penalties of badness, without enjoying its pleasures?" And so they
are guilty of many evil actions; for, however vigilant fathers and
mothers may be, the daughter can always blind their eyes.
On the other hand, many parents take no trouble whatever with
their charges: they allow them to sit in idleness, the origin of
badness; they permit them to communicate with the wicked, and they
give them liberty which breeds opportunity. Thus they also, falling
into the snares of the unrighteous, who are ever a more painstaking
race than the righteous, are guilty of many evil actions.
What, then, must wise parents do? The wise will study the
characters of their children, and modify their treatment accordingly.
If a daughter be naturally good, she will be treated with a prudent
confidence. If she be vicious, an apparent trust will be reposed in
her; but her father and mother will secretly ever be upon their guard.
"All this parrot-prate, I suppose, is only intended to vex me,"
cried the warrior king, who always considered himself, and very
naturally, a person of such consequence as ever to be uppermost in
the thoughts and minds of others. "If thou must tell a tale, then tell
one, Vampire! or else be silent, as I am sick to the death of thy
"It is well, O warrior king," resumed the Baital.
After that Churaman the parrot had given the young Raja Ram a
golden mine full of good advice about the management of daughters, he
proceeded to describe Jayashri.
She was tall, stout, and well made, of lymphatic temperament, and
yet strong passions. Her fine large eyes had heavy and rather full
eyelids, which are to be avoided. Her hands were symmetrical without
being small, and the palms were ever warm and damp. Though her lips
were good, her mouth was somewhat underhung; and her voice was so
deep, that at times it sounded like that of a man. Her hair was smooth
as the kokila's plume, and her complexion was that of the young
jasmine; and these were the points at which most persons looked.
Altogether, she was neither handsome nor ugly, which is an excellent
thing in woman. Sita the goddess[FN#77] was lovely to excess;
therefore she was carried away by a demon. Raja Bali was exceedingly
generous, and he emptied his treasury. In this way, exaggeration, even
of good, is exceedingly bad.
Yet must I confess, continued the parrot, that, as a rule, the
beautiful woman is more virtuous than the ugly. The former is often
tempted, but her vanity and conceit enable her to resist, by the
self-promise that she shall be tempted again and again. On the other
hand, the ugly woman must tempt instead of being tempted, and she must
yield, because her vanity and conceit are gratified by yielding, not
"Ho, there!" broke in the jay contemptuously. "What woman cannot
win the hearts of the silly things called men? Is it not said that a
pig-faced female who dwells in Landanpur has a lover?"
I was about to remark, my king! said the parrot, somewhat nettled,
if the aged virgin had not interrupted me, that as ugly women are
more vicious than handsome women, so they are most successful. "We
love the pretty, we adore the plain," is a true saying amongst the
worldly wise. And why do we adore the plain? Because they seem to
think less of themselves than of us-a vital condition of adoration.
Jayashri made some conquests by the portion of good looks which
she possessed, more by her impudence, and most by her father's
reputation for riches. She was truly shameless, and never allowed
herself fewer than half a dozen admirers at the time. Her chief
amusement was to appoint interviews with them successively, at
intervals so short that she was obliged to hurry away one in order to
make room for another. And when a lover happened to be jealous, or
ventured in any way to criticize her arrangements, she replied at once
by showing him the door. Answer unanswerable!
When Jayashri had reached the ripe age of thirteen, the son of a
merchant, who was her father's gossip and neighbour, returned home
after a long sojourn in far lands, whither he had travelled in the
search of wealth. The poor wretch, whose name, by-the-bye, was Shridat
(Gift of Fortune), had loved her in her childhood; and he came back,
as men are apt to do after absence from familiar scenes, painfully
full of affection for house and home and all belonging to it. From his
cross, stingy old uncle to the snarling superannuated beast of a
watchdog, he viewed all with eyes of love and melting heart. He could
not see that his idol was greatly changed, and nowise for the better;
that her nose was broader and more club-like, her eyelids fatter and
thicker, her under lip more prominent, her voice harsher, and her
manner coarser. He did not notice that she was an adept in judging of
men's dress, and that she looked with admiration upon all swordsmen,
especially upon those who fought upon horses and elephants. The charm
of memory, the curious faculty of making past time present caused all
he viewed to be enchanting to him.
Having obtained her father's permission, Shridat applied for
betrothal to Jayashri, who with peculiar boldness, had resolved that
no suitor should come to her through her parent. And she, after
leading him on by all the coquetries of which she was a mistress,
refused to marry him, saying that she liked him as a friend, but
would hate him as a husband.
You see, my king! there are three several states of feeling with
which women regard their masters, and these are love, hate, and
indifference. Of all, love is the weakest and the most transient,
because the essentially unstable creatures naturally fall out of it as
readily as they fall into it. Hate being a sister excitement will
easily become, if a man has wit enough to effect the change, love;
and hate-love may perhaps last a little longer than love-love. Also,
man has the occupation, the excitement, and the pleasure of bringing
about the change. As regards the neutral state, that poet was not
happy in his ideas who sang—
Whene'er indifference appears, or scorn,
Then, man, despair! then, hapless lover, mourn!
For a man versed in the Lila Shastra[FN#78] can soon turn a
woman's indifference into hate, which I have shown is as easily
permuted to love. In which predicament it is the old thing over
again, and it ends in the pure Asat[FN#79] or nonentity.
"Which of these two birds, the jay or the parrot, had dipped deeper
into human nature, mighty King Vikram?" asked the demon in a
wheedling tone of voice.
The trap was this time set too openly, even for the royal
personage, to fall into it. He hurried on, calling to his son, and not
answering a word. The Vampire therefore resumed the thread of his
story at the place where he had broken it off.
Shridat was in despair when he heard the resolve of his idol. He
thought of drowning himself, of throwing himself down from the summit
of Mount Girnar,[FN#80] of becoming a religious beggar; in short, of a
multitude of follies. But he refrained from all such heroic remedies
for despair, having rightly judged, when he became somewhat calmer,
that they would not be likely to further his suit. He discovered that
patience is a virtue, and he resolved impatiently enough to practice
it. And by perseverance he succeeded. The worse for him! How vain are
men to wish! How wise is the Deity, who is deaf to their wishes!
Jayashri, for potent reasons best known to herself, was married to
Shridat six months after his return home. He was in raptures. He
called himself the happiest man in existence. He thanked and
sacrificed to the Bhagwan for listening to his prayers. He recalled
to mind with thrilling heart the long years which he had spent in
hopeless exile from all that was dear to him, his sadness and
anxiety, his hopes and joys, his toils and troubles his loyal love and
his vows to Heaven for the happiness of his idol, and for the
furtherance of his fondest desires.
For truly he loved her, continued the parrot, and there is
something holy in such love. It becomes not only a faith, but the best
of faiths-an abnegation of self which emancipates the spirit from its
straightest and earthliest bondage, the "I"; the first step in the
regions of heaven; a homage rendered through the creature to the
Creator; a devotion solid, practical, ardent, not as worship mostly
is, a cold and lifeless abstraction; a merging of human nature into
one far nobler and higher the spiritual existence of the supernal
world. For perfect love is perfect happiness, and the only perfection
of man; and what is a demon but a being without love? And what makes
man's love truly divine, is the fact that it is bestowed upon such a
thing as woman.
"And now, Raja Vikram," said the Vampire, speaking in his proper
person, "I have given you Madanmanjari the jay's and Churaman the
parrot's definitions of the tender passion, or rather their
descriptions of its effects. Kindly observe that I am far from
accepting either one or the other. Love is, according to me, somewhat
akin to mania, a temporary condition of selfishness, a transient
confusion of identity. It enables man to predicate of others who are
his other selves, that which he is ashamed to say about his real self.
I will suppose the beloved object to be ugly, stupid, vicious,
perverse, selfish, low minded, or the reverse; man finds it charming
by the same rule that makes his faults and foibles dearer to him than
all the virtues and good qualities of his neighbours. Ye call love a
spell, an alchemy, a deity. Why? Because it deifies self by gratifying
all man's pride, man's vanity, and man's conceit, under the mask of
complete unegotism. Who is not in heaven when he is talking of
himself? and, prithee, of what else consists all the talk of lovers?"
It is astonishing that the warrior king allowed this speech to last
as long as it did. He hated nothing so fiercely, now that he was in
middle-age, as any long mention of the "handsome god.[FN#81]" Having
vainly endeavoured to stop by angry mutterings the course of the
Baital's eloquence, he stepped out so vigorously and so rudely shook
that inveterate talker, that the latter once or twice nearly bit off
the tip of his tongue. Then the Vampire became silent, and Vikram
relapsed into a walk which allowed the tale to be resumed.
Jayashri immediately conceived a strong dislike for her husband,
and simultaneously a fierce affection for a reprobate who before had
been indifferent to her. The more lovingly Shridat behaved to her, the
more vexed end annoyed she was. When her friends talked to her, she
turned up her nose, raising her eyebrows (in token of displeasure),
and remained silent. When her husband spoke words of affection to her,
she found them disagreeable, and turning away her face, reclined on
the bed. Then he brought dresses and ornaments of various kinds and
presented them to her, saying, "Wear these." Whereupon she would
become more angry, knit her brows, turn her face away, and in an
audible whisper call him "fool." All day she stayed out of the house,
saying to her companions, "Sisters, my youth is passing away, and I
have not, up to the present time, tasted any of this world's
pleasures." Then she would ascend to the balcony, peep through the
lattice, and seeing the reprobate going along, she would cry to her
friend, "Bring that person to me." All night she tossed and turned
from side to side, reflecting in her heart, "I am puzzled in my mind
what I shall say, and whither I shall go. I have forgotten sleep,
hunger, and thirst; neither heat nor cold is refreshing to me."
At last, unable any longer to support the separation from her
reprobate paramour, whom she adored, she resolved to fly with him. On
one occasion, when she thought that her husband was fast asleep, she
rose up quietly, and leaving him, made her way fearlessly in the dark
night to her lover's abode. A footpad, who saw her on the way, thought
to himself, "Where can this woman, clothed in jewels, be going alone
at midnight?" And thus he followed her unseen, and watched her.
When Jayashri reached the intended place, she went into the house,
and found her lover lying at the door. He was dead, having been
stabbed by the footpad; but she, thinking that he had, according to
custom, drunk intoxicating hemp, sat upon the floor, and raising his
head, placed it tenderly in her lap. Then, burning with the fire of
separation from him, she began to kiss his cheeks, and to fondle and
caress him with the utmost freedom and affection.
By chance a Pisach (evil spirit) was seated in a large
fig-tree[FN#82] opposite the house, and it occurred to him, when
beholding this scene, that he might amuse himself in a characteristic
way. He therefore hopped down from his branch, vivified the body, and
began to return the woman's caresses. But as Jayashri bent down to
kiss his lips, he caught the end of her nose in his teeth, and bit it
clean off. He then issued from the corpse, and returned to the branch
where he had been sitting.
Jayashri was in despair. She did not, however, lose her presence of
mind, but sat down and proceeded to take thought; and when she had
matured her plan she arose, dripping with blood, and walked straight
home to her husband's house. On entering his room she clapped her hand
to her nose, and began to gnash her teeth, and to shriek so violently,
that all the members of the family were alarmed. The neighbours also
collected in numbers at the door, and, as it was bolted inside, they
broke it open and rushed in, carrying lights. There they saw the wife
sitting upon the ground with her face mutilated, and the husband
standing over her, apparently trying to appease her.
"O ignorant, criminal, shameless, pitiless wretch!" cried the
people, especially the women; "why hast thou cut off her nose, she
not having offended in any way?"
Poor Shridat, seeing at once the trick which had been played upon
him, thought to himself: "One should put no confidence in a changeful
mind, a black serpent, or an armed enemy, and one should dread a
woman's doings. What cannot a poet describe? What is there that a
saint (jogi) does not know? What nonsense will not a drunken man talk?
What limit is there to a woman's guile? True it is that the gods know
nothing of the defects of a horse, of the thundering of clouds, of a
woman's deeds, or of a man's future fortunes. How then can we know?"
He could do nothing but weep, and swear by the herb basil, by his
cattle, by his grain, by a piece of gold, and by all that is holy,
that he had not committed the crime.
In the meanwhile, the old merchant, Jayashri's father, ran off, and
laid a complaint before the kotwal, and the footmen of the police
magistrate were immediately sent to apprehend the husband, and to
carry him bound before the judge. The latter, after due examination,
laid the affair before the king. An example happening to be necessary
at the time, the king resolved to punish the offence with severity,
and he summoned the husband and wife to the court.
When the merchant's daughter was asked to give an account of what
had happened, she pointed out the state of her nose, and said,
"Maharaj! why inquire of me concerning what is so manifest?" The king
then turned to the husband, and bade him state his defence. He said,
"I know nothing of it," and in the face of the strongest evidence he
persisted in denying his guilt.
Thereupon the king, who had vainly threatened to cut off Shridat's
right hand, infuriated by his refusing to confess and to beg for
mercy, exclaimed, "How must I punish such a wretch as thou art?" The
unfortunate man answered, "Whatever your majesty may consider just,
that be pleased to do." Thereupon the king cried, "Away with him, and
impale him"; and the people, hearing the command, prepared to obey it.
Before Shridat had left the court, the footpad, who had been
looking on, and who saw that an innocent man was about to be unjustly
punished, raised a cry for justice and, pushing through the crowd,
resolved to make himself heard. He thus addressed the throne: "Great
king, the cherishing of the good, and the punishment of the bad, is
the invariable duty of kings." The ruler having caused him to
approach, asked him who he was, and he replied boldly, " Maharaj! I am
a thief, and this man is innocent and his blood is about to be shed
unjustly. Your majesty has not done what is right in this affair."
Thereupon the king charged him to tell the truth according to his
religion; and the thief related explicitly the whole circumstances,
omitting of course, the murder.
"Go ye," said the king to his messengers, "and look in the mouth of
the woman's lover who has fallen dead. If the nose be there found,
then has this thief-witness told the truth, and the husband is a
The nose was presently produced in court, and Shridat escaped the
stake. The king caused the wicked Jayashri's face to be smeared with
oily soot, and her head and eyebrows to be shaved; thus blackened and
disfigured, she was mounted upon a little ragged-limbed ass and was
led around the market and the streets, after which she was banished
for ever from the city. The husband and the thief were then dismissed
with betel and other gifts, together with much sage advice which
neither of them wanted.
"My king," resumed the misogyne parrot, "of such excellencies as
these are women composed. It is said that 'wet cloth will extinguish
fire and bad food will destroy strength; a degenerate son ruins a
family, and when a friend is in wrath he takes away life. But a woman
is an inflicter of grief in love and in hate, whatever she does turns
out to be for our ill. Truly the Deity has created woman a strange
being in this world.' And again, 'The beauty of the nightingale is its
song, science is the beauty of an ugly man, forgiveness is the beauty
of a devotee, and the beauty of a woman is virtue-but where shall we
find it?' And again, 'Among the sages, Narudu; among the beasts, the
jackal; among the birds, the crow; among men, the barber; and in this
world woman-is the most crafty.'
"What I have told thee, my king, I have seen with mine own eyes,
and I have heard with mine own ears. At the time I was young, but the
event so affected me that I have ever since held female kind to be a
walking pest, a two-legged plague, whose mission on earth, like flies
and other vermin, is only to prevent our being too happy. O, why do
not children and young parrots sprout in crops from the ground-from
budding trees or vinestocks?"
"I was thinking, sire," said the young Dharma Dhwaj to the warrior
king his father, "what women would say of us if they could compose
"Then keep your thoughts to yourself," replied the Raja, nettled at
his son daring to say a word in favour of the sex. "You always take
the part of wickedness and depravity—- "
"Permit me, your majesty," interrupted the Baital, "to conclude my
When Madan-manjari, the jay, and Churaman, the parrot, had given
these illustrations of their belief, they began to wrangle, and words
ran high. The former insisted that females are the salt of the earth,
speaking, I presume, figuratively. The latter went so far as to assert
that the opposite sex have no souls, and that their brains are in a
rudimental and inchoate state of development. Thereupon he was tartly
taken to task by his master's bride, the beautiful Chandravati, who
told him that those only have a bad opinion of women who have
associated with none but the vicious and the low, and that he should
be ashamed to abuse feminine parrots, because his mother had been one.
This was truly logical.
On the other hand, the jay was sternly reproved for her mutinous
and treasonable assertions by the husband of her mistress, Raja Ram,
who, although still a bridegroom, had not forgotten the gallant rule
of his syntax—
The masculine is more worthy than the feminine;
till Madan-manjari burst into tears and declared that her life was
not worth having. And Raja Ram looked at her as if he could have
wrung her neck.
In short, Raja Vikram, all the four lost their tempers, and with
them what little wits they had. Two of them were but birds, and the
others seem not to have been much better, being young, ignorant,
inexperienced, and lately married. How then could they decide so
difficult a question as that of the relative wickedness and villany of
men and women? Had your majesty been there, the knot of uncertainty
would soon have been undone by the trenchant edge of your wit and
wisdom, your knowledge and experience. You have, of course, long since
made up your mind upon the subject?
Dharma Dhwaj would have prevented his father's reply. But the
youth had been twice reprehended in the course of this tale, and he
thought it wisest to let things take their own way.
"Women," quoth the Raja, oracularly, "are worse than we are; a
man, however depraved he may be, ever retains some notion of right
and wrong, but a woman does not. She has no such regard whatever."
"The beautiful Bangalah Rani for instance?" said the Baital, with a
At the mention of a word, the uttering of which was punishable by
extirpation of the tongue, Raja Vikram's brain whirled with rage. He
staggered in the violence of his passion, and putting forth both hands
to break his fall, he dropped the bundle from his back. Then the
Baital, disentangling himself and laughing lustily, ran off towards
the tree as fast as his thin brown legs would carry him. But his
activity availed him little.
The king, puffing with fury, followed him at the top of his speed,
and caught him by his tail before he reached the siras-tree, hurled
him backwards with force, put foot upon his chest, and after shaking
out the cloth, rolled him up in it with extreme violence, bumped his
back half a dozen times against the stony ground, and finally, with a
jerk, threw him on his shoulder, as he had done before.
The young prince, afraid to accompany his father whilst he was
pursuing the fiend, followed slowly in the rear, and did not join him
for some minutes.
But when matters were in their normal state, the Vampire, who had
endured with exemplary patience the penalty of his impudence, began
in honeyed accents,
"Listen, O warrior king, whilst thy servant recounts unto thee
another true tale."
In the venerable city of Bardwan, O warrior king! (quoth the
Vampire) during the reign of the mighty Rupsen, flourished one
Rajeshwar, a Rajput warrior of distinguished fame. By his valour and
conduct he had risen from the lowest ranks of the army to command it
as its captain. And arrived at that dignity, he did not put a stop to
all improvements, like other chiefs, who rejoice to rest and return
thanks. On the contrary, he became such a reformer that, to some
extent, he remodelled the art of war.
Instead of attending to rules and regulations, drawn up in their
studies by pandits and Brahmans, he consulted chiefly his own
experience and judgment. He threw aside the systematic plans of
campaigns laid down in the Shastras or books of the ancients, and he
acted upon the spur of the moment. He displayed a skill in the choice
of ground, in the use of light troops, and in securing his own
supplies whilst he cut off those of the enemy, which Kartikaya
himself, God of War, might have envied. Finding that the bows of his
troops were clumsy and slow to use, he had them all changed before
compelled so to do by defeat; he also gave his attention to the sword
handles, which cramped the men's grasp but which having been used for
eighteen hundred years were considered perfect weapons. And having
organized a special corps of warriors using fire arrows, he soon
brought it to such perfection that, by using it against the elephants
of his enemies, he gained many a campaign.
One instance of his superior judgment I am about to quote to thee,
O Vikram, after which I return to my tale; for thou art truly a
warrior king, very likely to imitate the innovations of the great
(A grunt from the monarch was the result of the Vampire's sneer.)
He found his master's armies recruited from Northern Hindustan,
and officered by Kshatriya warriors, who grew great only because they
grew old and—fat. Thus the energy and talent of the younger men were
wasted in troubles and disorders; whilst the seniors were often so
ancient that they could not mount their chargers unaided, nor, when
they were mounted, could they see anything a dozen yards before them.
But they had served in a certain obsolete campaign, and until
Rajeshwar gave them pensions and dismissals, they claimed a right to
take first part in all campaigns present and future. The
commander-in-chief refused to use any captain who could not stand
steady on his legs, or endure the sun for a whole day. When a soldier
distinguished himself in action, he raised him to the powers and
privileges of the warrior caste. And whereas it had been the habit to
lavish circles and bars of silver and other metals upon all those who
had joined in the war, whether they had sat behind a heap of sand or
had been foremost to attack the foe, he broke through the pernicious
custom, and he rendered the honour valuable by conferring it only upon
the deserving. I need hardly say that, in an inordinately short space
of time, his army beat every king and general that opposed it.
One day the great commander-in-chief was seated in a certain room
near the threshold of his gate, when the voices of a number of people
outside were heard. Rajeshwar asked, "Who is at the door, and what is
the meaning of the noise I hear?" The porter replied, "It is a fine
thing your honour has asked. Many persons come sitting at the door of
the rich for the purpose of obtaining a livelihood and wealth. When
they meet together they talk of various things: it is these very
people who are now making this noise."
Rajeshwar, on hearing this, remained silent.
In the meantime a traveller, a Rajput, Birbal by name, hoping to
obtain employment, came from the southern quarter to the palace of
the chief. The porter having listened to his story, made the
circumstance known to his master, saying, "O chief! an armed man has
arrived here, hoping to obtain employment, and is standing at the
door. If I receive a command he shall be brought into your honour's
"Bring him in," cried the commander-in-chief.
The porter brought him in, and Rajeshwar inquired, "O Rajput, who
and what art thou?"
Birbal submitted that he was a person of distinguished fame for the
use of weapons, and that his name for fidelity and velour had gone
forth to the utmost ends of Bharat-Kandha.[FN#83]
The chief was well accustomed to this style of self introduction,
and its only effect upon his mind was a wish to shame the man by
showing him that he had not the least knowledge of weapons. He
therefore bade him bare his blade and perform some feat.
Birbal at once drew his good sword. Guessing the thoughts which
were hovering about the chief's mind, he put forth his left hand,
extending the forefinger upwards, waved his blade like the arm of a
demon round his head, and, with a dexterous stroke, so shaved off a
bit of nail that it fell to the ground, and not a drop of blood
appeared upon the finger-tip.
"Live for ever!" exclaimed Rajeshwar in admiration. He then
addressed to the recruit a few questions concerning the art of war,
or rather concerning his peculiar views of it. To all of which Birbal
answered with a spirit and a judgment which convinced the hearer that
he was no common sworder.
Whereupon Rajeshwar bore off the new man at arms to the palace of
the king Rupsen, and recommended that he should be engaged without
The king, being a man of few words and many ideas, after hearing
his commander-in-chief, asked, "O Rajput, what shall I give thee for
thy daily expenditure?"
"Give me a thousand ounces of gold daily," said Birbal, "and then I
shall have wherewithal to live on."
"Hast thou an army with thee?" exclaimed the king in the greatest
"I have not," responded the Rajput somewhat stiffly. "I have first,
a wife; second, a son; third, a daughter; fourth, myself; there is no
fifth person with me."
All the people of the court on hearing this turned aside their
heads to laugh, and even the women, who were peeping at the scene,
covered their mouths with their veils. The Rajput was then dismissed
It is, however, noticeable amongst you humans, that the world
often takes you at your own valuation. Set a high price upon
yourselves, and each man shall say to his neighbour, "In this man
there must be something." Tell everyone that you are brave, clever,
generous, or even handsome, and after a time they will begin to
believe you. And when thus you have attained success, it will be
harder to unconvince them than it was to convince them. Thus—-
"Listen not to him, sirrah," cried Raja Vikram to Dharma Dhwaj,
the young prince, who had fallen a little way behind, and was giving
ear attentively to the Vampire's ethics. "Listen to him not. And tell
me, villain, with these ignoble principles of shine, what will become
of modesty, humility, self-sacrifice, and a host of other Guna or good
qualities which—which are good qualities?"
"I know not," rejoined the Baital, "neither do I care. But my
habitually inspiriting a succession of human bodies has taught me one
fact. The wise man knows himself, and is, therefore, neither unduly
humble nor elated, because he had no more to do with making himself
than with the cut of his cloak, or with the fitness of his loin-cloth.
But the fool either loses his head by comparing himself with still
greater fools, or is prostrated when he finds himself inferior to
other and lesser fools. This shyness he calls modesty, humility, and
so forth. Now, whenever entering a corpse, whether it be of man,
woman, or child, I feel peculiarly modest; I know that my tenement
lately belonged to some conceited ass. And—"
"Wouldst thou have me bump thy back against the ground?" asked
Raja Vikram angrily.
(The Baital muttered some reply scarcely intelligible about his
having this time stumbled upon a metaphysical thread of ideas, and
then continued his story.)
Now Rupsen, the king, began by inquiring of himself why the Rajput
had rated his services so highly. Then he reflected that if this
recruit had asked so much money, it must have been for some reason
which would afterwards become apparent. Next, he hoped that if he gave
him so much, his generosity might some day turn out to his own
advantage. Finally, with this idea in his mind, he summoned Birbal and
the steward of his household, and said to the latter, "Give this
Rajput a thousand ounces of gold daily from our treasury."
It is related that Birbal made the best possible use of his wealth.
He used every morning to divide it into two portions, one of which
was distributed to Brahmans and Parohitas.[FN#84] Of the remaining
moiety, having made two parts, he gave one as alms to pilgrims, to
Bairagis or Vishnu's mendicants, and to Sanyasis or worshippers of
Shiva, whose bodies, smeared with ashes, were hardly covered with a
narrow cotton cloth and a rope about their loins, and whose heads of
artificial hair, clotted like a rope, besieged his gate. With the
remaining fourth, having caused food to be prepared, he regaled the
poor, while he himself and his family ate what was left. Every
evening, arming himself with sword and buckler, he took up his
position as guard at the royal bedside, and walked round it all night
sword in hand. If the king chanced to wake and asked who was present,
Birbal immediately gave reply that "Birbal is here; whatever command
you give, that he will obey." And oftentimes Rupsen gave him unusual
commands, for it is said, "To try thy servant, bid him do things in
season and out of season: if he obey thee willingly, know him to be
useful; if he reply, dismiss him at once. Thus is a servant tried,
even as a wife by the poverty of her husband, and brethren and
friends by asking their aid."
In such manner, through desire of money, Birbal remained on guard
all night; and whether eating, drinking, sleeping, sitting, going or
wandering about, during the twenty-four hours, he held his master in
watchful remembrance. This, indeed, is the custom; if a man sell
another the latter is sold, but a servant by doing service sells
himself, and when a man has become dependent, how can he be happy?
Certain it is that however intelligent, clever, or learned a man may
be, yet, while he is in his master's presence, he remains silent as a
dumb man, and struck with dread. Only while he is away from his lord
can he be at ease. Hence, learned men say that to do service aright is
harder than any religious study.
On one occasion it is related that there happened to be heard at
night-time the wailing of a woman in a neighbouring cemetery. The
king on hearing it called out, "Who is in waiting?"
"I am here," replied Birbal; "what command is there?"
"Go," spoke the king, "to the place whence proceeds this sound of
woman's wail, and having inquired the cause of her grief, return
On receiving this order the Rajput went to obey it; and the king,
unseen by him, and attired in a black dress, followed for the purpose
of observing his courage.
Presently Birbal arrived at the cemetery. And what sees he there?
A beautiful woman of a light yellow colour, loaded with jewels from
head to foot, holding a horn in her right and a necklace in her left
hand. Sometimes she danced, sometimes she jumped, and sometimes she
ran about. There was not a tear in her eye, but beating her head and
making lamentable cries, she kept dashing herself on the ground.
Seeing her condition, and not recognizing the goddess born of sea
foam, and whom all the host of heaven loved,[FN#85] Birbal inquired,
"Why art thou thus beating thyself and crying out? Who art thou? And
what grief is upon thee?"
"I am the Royal-Luck," she replied.
"For what reason," asked Birbal, "art thou weeping?"
The goddess then began to relate her position to the Rajput. She
said, with tears, "In the king's palace Shudra (or low caste acts) are
done, and hence misfortune will certainly fall upon it, and I shall
forsake it. After a month has passed, the king, having endured
excessive affliction, will die. In grief for this, I weep. I have
brought much happiness to the king's house, and hence I am full of
regret that this my prediction cannot in any way prove untrue."
"Is there," asked Birbal, "any remedy for this trouble, so that the
king may be preserved and live a hundred years?"
"Yes," said the goddess, "there is. About eight miles to the east
thou wilt find a temple dedicated to my terrible sister Devi. Offer
to her thy son's head, cut off with shine own hand, and the reign of
thy king shall endure for an age." So saying Raj-Lakshmi disappeared.
Birbal answered not a word, but with hurried steps he turned
towards his home. The king, still in black so as not to be seen,
followed him closely, and observed and listened to everything he did.
The Rajput went straight to his wife, awakened her, and related to
her everything that had happened. The wise have said, "she alone
deserves the name of wife who always receives her husband with
affectionate and submissive words." When she heard the circumstances,
she at once aroused her son, and her daughter also awoke. Then Birbal
told them all that they must follow him to the temple of Devi in the
On the way the Rajput said to his wife, "If thou wilt give up thy
son willingly, I will sacrifice him for our master's sake to Devi the
She replied, "Father and mother, son and daughter, brother and
relative, have I now none. You are everything to me. It is written in
the scripture that a wife is not made pure by gifts to priests, nor by
performing religious rites; her virtue consists in waiting upon her
husband, in obeying him and in loving him—yea! though he be lame,
maimed in the hands, dumb, deaf, blind, one eyed, leprous, or
humpbacked. It is a true saying that 'a son under one's authority, a
body free from sickness, a desire to acquire knowledge, an intelligent
friend, and an obedient wife; whoever holds these five will find them
bestowers of happiness and dispellers of affliction. An unwilling
servant, a parsimonious king, an insincere friend, and a wife not
under control; such things are disturbers of ease and givers of
Then the good wife turned to her son and said "Child by the gift of
thy head, the king's life may be spared, and the kingdom remain
"Mother," replied that excellent youth, "in my opinion we should
hasten this matter. Firstly, I must obey your command; secondly, I
must promote the interests of my master; thirdly, if this body be of
any use to a goddess, nothing better can be done with it in this
("Excuse me, Raja Vikram," said the Baital, interrupting himself,
"if I repeat these fair discourses at full length; it is interesting
to hear a young person, whose throat is about to be cut, talk so like
a doctor of laws.")
Then the youth thus addressed his sire: "Father, whoever can be of
use to his master, the life of that man in this world has been lived
to good purpose, and by reason of his usefulness he will be rewarded
in other worlds."
His sister, however, exclaimed, "If a mother should give poison to
her daughter, and a father sell his son, and a king seize the entire
property of his subjects, where then could one look for protection?"
But they heeded her not, and continued talking as they journeyed
towards the temple of Devi—the king all the while secretly following
Presently they reached the temple, a single room, surrounded by a
spacious paved area; in front was an immense building capable of
seating hundreds of people. Before the image there were pools of
blood, where victims had lately been slaughtered. In the sanctum was
Devi, a large black figure with ten arms. With a spear in one of her
right hands she pierced the giant Mahisha; and with one of her left
hands she held the tail of a serpent, and the hair of the giant, whose
breast the serpent was biting. Her other arms were all raised above
her head, and were filled with different instruments of war; against
her right leg leaned a lion.
Then Birbal joined his hands in prayer, and with Hindu mildness
thus addressed the awful goddess: "O mother, let the king's life be
prolonged for a thousand years by the sacrifice of my son. O Devi,
mother! destroy, destroy his enemies! Kill! kill! Reduce them to
ashes! Drive them away! Devour them! devour them! Cut them in two!
Drink! drink their blood! Destroy them root and branch! With thy
thunderbolt, spear, scymitar, discus, or rope, annihilate them!
The Rajput, having caused his son to kneel before the goddess,
struck him so violent a blow that his head rolled upon the ground. He
then threw the sword down, when his daughter, frantic with grief,
snatched it up and struck her neck with such force that her head,
separated from her body, fell. In her turn the mother, unable to
survive the loss of her children, seized the weapon and succeeded in
decapitating herself. Birbal, beholding all this slaughter, thus
reflected: "My children are dead why, now, should I remain in
servitude, and upon whom shall I bestow the gold I receive from the
king?" He then gave himself so deep a wound in the neck, that his head
also separated from his body.
Rupsen, the king, seeing these four heads on the ground, said in
his heart, "For my sake has the family of Birbal been destroyed.
Kingly power, for the purpose of upholding which the destruction of a
whole household is necessary, is a mere curse, and to carry on
government in this manner is not just." He then took up the sword and
was about to slay himself, when the Destroying Goddess, probably
satisfied with bloodshed, stayed his hand, bidding him at the same
time ask any boon he pleased.
The generous monarch begged, thereupon, that his faithful servant
might be restored to life, together with all his high-minded family;
and the goddess Devi in the twinkling of an eye fetched from Patala,
the regions below the earth, a vase full of Amrita, the water of
immortality, sprinkled it upon the dead, and raised them all as
before. After which the whole party walked leisurely home, and in due
time the king divided his throne with his friend Birbal.
Having stopped for a moment, the Baital proceeded to remark, in a
sententious tone, "Happy the servant who grudges not his own life to
save that of his master! And happy, thrice happy the master who can
annihilate all greedy longing for existence and worldly prosperity.
Raja, I have to ask thee one searching question—Of these five, who
was the greatest fool?"
"Demon!" exclaimed the great Vikram, all whose cherished feelings
about fidelity and family affection, obedience, and high-mindedness,
were outraged by this Vampire view of the question; "if thou meanest
by the greatest fool the noblest mind, I reply without hesitating
Rupsen, the king."
"Why, prithee?" asked the Baital.
"Because, dull demon," said the king, "Birbal was bound to offer
up his life for a master who treated him so generously; the son could
not disobey his father, and the women naturally and instinctively
killed themselves, because the example was set to them. But Rupsen the
king gave up his throne for the sake of his retainer, and valued not a
straw his life and his high inducements to live. For this reason I
think him the most meritorious."
"Surely, mighty Vikram," laughed the Vampire, "you will be tired
of ever clambering up yon tall tree, even had you the legs and arms
of Hanuman[FN#86] himself."
And so saying he disappeared from the cloth, although it had been
placed upon the ground.
But the poor Baital had little reason to congratulate himself on
the success of his escape. In a short time he was again bundled into
the cloth with the usual want of ceremony, and he revenged himself by
telling another true story.
"Listen, great king!" again began the Baital.
An unimportant Baniya[FN#87] (trader), Hiranyadatt, had a
daughter, whose name was Madansena Sundari, the beautiful army of
Cupid. Her face was like the moon; her hair like the clouds; her eyes
like those of a muskrat; her eyebrows like a bent bow; her nose like a
parrot's bill; her neck like that of a dove; her teeth like
pomegranate grains; the red colour of her lips like that of a gourd;
her waist lithe and bending like the pards: her hands and feet like
softest blossoms; her complexion like the jasmine-in fact, day by day
the splendour of her youth increased.
When she had arrived at maturity, her father and mother began
often to resolve in their minds the subject of her marriage. And the
people of all that country side ruled by Birbar king of Madanpur
bruited it abroad that in the house of Hiranyadatt had been born a
daughter by whose beauty gods, men, and munis (sages) were
Thereupon many, causing their portraits to be painted, sent them
by messengers to Hiranyadatt the Baniya, who showed them all to his
daughter. But she was capricious, as beauties sometimes are, and when
her father said, "Make choice of a husband thyself," she told him that
none pleased her, and moreover she begged of him to find her a husband
who possessed good looks, good qualities, and good sense.
At length, when some days had passed, four suitors came from four
different countries. The father told them that he must have from each
some indication that he possessed the required qualities; that he was
pleased with their looks, but that they must satisfy him about their
"I have," the first said, "a perfect acquaintance with the Shastras
(or Scriptures); in science there is none to rival me. As for my
handsome mien, it may plainly be seen by you."
The second exclaimed, "My attainments are unique in the knowledge
of archery. I am acquainted with the art of discharging arrows and
killing anything which though not seen is heard, and my fine
proportions are plainly visible to you."
The third continued, "I understand the language of land and water
animals, of birds and of beasts, and I have no equal in strength. Of
my comeliness you yourself may judge."
"I have the knowledge," quoth the fourth, "how to make a certain
cloth which can be sold for five rubies: having sold it I give the
proceeds of one ruby to a Brahman, of the second I make an offering
to a deity, a third I wear on my own person, a fourth I keep for my
wife; and, having sold the fifth, I spend it in giving feasts. This is
my knowledge, and none other is acquainted with it. My good looks are
The father hearing these speeches began to reflect, "It is said
that excess in anything is not good. Sita[FN#88] was very lovely, but
the demon Ravana carried her away; and Bali king of Mahabahpur gave
much alms, but at length he became poor.[FN#89] My daughter is too
fair to remain a maiden; to which of these shall I give her?"
So saying, Hiranyadatt went to his daughter, explained the
qualities of the four suitors, and asked, "To which shall I give
thee?" On hearing these words she was abashed; and, hanging down her
head, knew not what to reply.
Then the Baniya, having reflected, said to himself, "He who is
acquainted with the Shastras is a Brahman, he who could shoot an
arrow at the sound was a Kshatriya or warrior, and he who made the
cloth was a Shudra or servile. But the youth who understands the
language of birds is of our own caste. To him, therefore, will I marry
her." And accordingly he proceeded with the betrothal of his daughter.
Meanwhile Madansena went one day, during the spring season into
the garden for a stroll. It happened, just before she came out, that
Somdatt, the son of the merchant Dharmdatt, had gone for pleasure
into the forest, and was returning through the same garden to his
He was fascinated at the sight of the maiden, and said to his
friend, "Brother, if I can obtain her my life will be prosperous, and
if I do not obtain her my living in the world will be in vain."
Having thus spoken, and becoming restless from the fear of
separation, he involuntarily drew near to her, and seizing her hand,
said—"If thou wilt not form an affection for me, I will throw away
my life on thy account."
"Be pleased not to do this," she replied; "it will be sinful, and
it will involve me in the guilt and punishment of shedding blood;
hence I shall be miserable in this world and in that to be."
"Thy blandishments," he replied, "have pierced my heart, and the
consuming thought of parting from thee has burnt up my body, and
memory and understanding have been destroyed by this pain; and from
excess of love I have no sense of right or wrong. But if thou wilt
make me a promise, I will live again."
She replied, "Truly the Kali Yug (iron age) has commenced, since
which time falsehood has increased in the world and truth has
diminished; people talk smoothly with their tongues, but nourish
deceit in their hearts; religion is destroyed, crime has increased,
and the earth has begun to give little fruit. Kings levy fines,
Brahmans have waxed covetous, the son obeys not his sire's commands,
brother distrusts brother; friendship has departed from amongst
friends; sincerity has left masters; servants have given up service;
man has abandoned manliness; and woman has abandoned modesty. Five
days hence, my marriage is to be; but if thou slay not thyself, I will
visit thee first, and after that I will remain with my husband."
Having given this promise, and having sworn by the Ganges, she
returned home. The merchant's son also went his way.
Presently the marriage ceremonies came on, and Hiranyadatt the
Baniya expended a lakh of rupees in feasts and presents to the
bridegroom. The bodies of the twain were anointed with turmeric, the
bride was made to hold in her hand the iron box for eye paint, and the
youth a pair of betel scissors. During the night before the wedding
there was loud and shrill music, the heads and limbs of the young
couple were rubbed with an ointment of oil, and the bridegroom's head
was duly shaved. The wedding procession was very grand. The streets
were a blaze of flambeaux and torches carried in the hand, fireworks
by the ton were discharged as the people passed; elephants, camels,
and horses richly caparisoned, were placed in convenient situations;
and before the procession had reached the house of the bride half a
dozen wicked boys and bad young men were killed or wounded.[FN#90]
After the marriage formulas were repeated, the Baniya gave a feast or
supper, and the food was so excellent that all sat down quietly, no
one uttered a complaint, or brought dishonour on the bride's family,
or cut with scissors the garments of his neighbour.
The ceremony thus happily concluded, the husband brought Madansena
home to his own house. After some days the wife of her husband's
youngest brother, and also the wife of his eldest brother, led her at
night by force to her bridegroom, and seated her on a bed ornamented
As her husband proceeded to take her hand, she jerked it away, and
at once openly told him all that she had promised to Somdatt on
condition of his not killing himself.
"All things," rejoined the bridegroom, hearing her words, "have
their sense ascertained by speech; in speech they have their basis,
and from speech they proceed; consequently a falsifier of speech
falsifies everything. If truly you are desirous of going to him, go!
"Receiving her husband's permission, she arose and went off to the
young merchant's house in full dress. Upon the road a thief saw her,
and in high good humour came up and asked—
"Whither goest thou at midnight in such darkness, having put on
all these fine clothes and ornaments?"
She replied that she was going to the house of her beloved.
"And who here," said the thief, "is thy protector?"
"Kama Deva," she replied, "the beautiful youth who by his fiery
arrows wounds with love the hearts of the inhabitants of the three
worlds, Ratipati, the husband of Rati,[FN#91] accompanied by the
kokila bird,[FN#92] the humming bee and gentle breezes." She then
told to the thief the whole story, adding—
"Destroy not my jewels: I give thee a promise before I go, that on
my return thou shalt have all these ornaments."
Hearing this the thief thought to himself that it would be useless
now to destroy her jewels, when she had promised to give them to him
presently of her own good will. He therefore let her go, and sat down
and thus soliloquized:
"To me it is astonishing that he who sustained me in my mother's
womb should take no care of me now that I have been born and am able
to enjoy the good things of this world. I know not whether he is
asleep or dead. And I would rather swallow poison than ask man for
money or favour. For these six things tend to lower a man:—
friendship with the perfidious; causeless laughter; altercation with
women; serving an unworthy master; riding an ass, and speaking any
language but Sanskrit. And these five things the deity writes on our
fate at the hour of birth:— first, age; secondly, action; thirdly,
wealth; fourthly, science; fifthly, fame. I have now done a good deed,
and as long as a man's virtue is in the ascendant, all people becoming
his servants obey him. But when virtuous deeds diminish, even his
friends become inimical to him."
Meanwhile Madansena had reached the place where Somdatt the young
trader had fallen asleep.
She awoke him suddenly, and he springing up in alarm quickly asked
her, "Art thou the daughter of a deity? or of a saint? or of a
serpent? Tell me truly, who art thou? And whence hast thou come?"
She replied, "I am human— Madansena, the daughter of the Baniya
Hiranyadatt. Dost thou not remember taking my hand in that grove, and
declaring that thou wouldst slay thyself if I did not swear to visit
thee first and after that remain with my husband?"
"Hast thou," he inquired, "told all this to thy husband or not?"
She replied, "I have told him everything; and he, thoroughly
understanding the whole affair, gave me permission."
"This matter," exclaimed Somdatt in a melancholy voice, "is like
pearls without a suitable dress, or food without clarified
butter,[FN#93] or singing without melody; they are all alike
unnatural. In the same way, unclean clothes will mar beauty, bad food
will undermine strength, a wicked wife will worry her husband to
death, a disreputable son will ruin his family, an enraged demon will
kill, and a woman, whether she love or hate, will be a source of pain.
For there are few things which a woman will not do. She never brings
to her tongue what is in her heart, she never speaks out what is on
her tongue, and she never tells what she is doing. Truly the Deity has
created woman a strange creature in this world." He concluded with
these words: "Return thou home with another man's wife I have no
Madansena rose and departed. On her way she met the thief, who,
hearing her tale, gave her great praise, and let her go
She then went to her husband, and related the whole matter to him.
But he had ceased to love her, and he said, "Neither a king nor a
minister, nor a wife, nor a person's hair nor his nails, look well out
of their places. And the beauty of the kokila is its note, of an ugly
man knowledge, of a devotee forgiveness, and of a woman her
The Vampire having narrated thus far, suddenly asked the king, "Of
these three, whose virtue was the greatest?"
Vikram, who had been greatly edified by the tale, forgot himself,
and ejaculated, "The Thief's."
"And pray why?" asked the Baital.
"Because," the hero explained, "when her husband saw that she
loved another man, however purely, he ceased to feel affection for
her. Somdatt let her go unharmed, for fear of being punished by the
king. But there was no reason why the thief should fear the law and
dismiss her; therefore he was the best."
"Hi! hi! hi!" laughed the demon, spitefully. "Here, then, ends my
Upon which, escaping as before from the cloth in which he was
slung behind the Raja's back, the Baital disappeared through the
darkness of the night, leaving father and son looking at each other
"Son Dharma Dhwaj," quoth the great Vikram, "the next time when
that villain Vampire asks me a question, I allow thee to take the
liberty of pinching my arm even before I have had time to answer his
questions. In this way we shall never, of a truth, end our task."
"Your words be upon my head, sire," replied the young prince. But
he expected no good from his father's new plan, as, arrived under the
sires-tree, he heard the Baital laughing with all his might."
Surely he is laughing at our beards, sire," said the beardless
prince, who hated to be laughed at like a young person.
"Let them laugh that win," fiercely cried Raja Vikram, who hated
to be laughed at like an elderly person.
* * * * * * *
The Vampire lost no time in opening a fresh story.
Your majesty (quoth the demon, with unusual politeness), there is
a country called Malaya, on the western coast of the land of
Bharat—you see that I am particular in specifying the place—and in
it was a city known as Chandrodaya, whose king was named Randhir.
This Raja, like most others of his semi-deified order, had been in
youth what is called a Sarva-rasi[FN#95]; that is, he ate and drank
and listened to music, and looked at dancers and made love much more
than he studied, reflected, prayed, or conversed with the wise. After
the age of thirty he began to reform, and he brought such zeal to the
good cause, that in an incredibly short space of time he came to be
accounted and quoted as the paragon of correct Rajas. This was very
praiseworthy. Many of Brahma's vicegerents on earth, be it observed,
have loved food and drink, and music and dancing, and the worship of
Kama, to the end of their days.
Amongst his officers was Gunshankar, a magistrate of police, who,
curious to say, was as honest as he was just. He administered equity
with as much care before as after dinner; he took no bribes even in
the matter of advancing his family; he was rather merciful than
otherwise to the poor, and he never punished the rich ostentatiously,
in order to display his and his law's disrespect for persons. Besides
which, when sitting on the carpet of justice, he did not, as some
Kotwals do, use rough or angry language to those who cannot reply; nor
did he take offence when none was intended.
All the people of the city Chandrodaya, in the province of Malaya,
on the western coast of Bharatland, loved and esteemed this excellent
magistrate; which did not, however, prevent thefts being committed so
frequently and so regularly, that no one felt his property secure. At
last the merchants who had suffered most from these depredations went
in a body before Gunshankar, and said to him:
"O flower of the law! robbers have exercised great tyranny upon
us, so great indeed that we can no longer stay in this city."
Then the magistrate replied, "What has happened, has happened. But
in future you shall be free from annoyance. I will make due
preparation for these thieves."
Thus saying Gunshankar called together his various delegates, and
directed them to increase the number of their people. He pointed out
to them how they should keep watch by night; besides which he ordered
them to open registers of all arrivals and departures, to make
themselves acquainted by means of spies with the movements of every
suspected person in the city, and to raise a body of paggis
(trackers), who could follow the footprints of thieves even when they
wore thieving shoes,[FN#96] till they came up with and arrested them.
And lastly, he gave the patrols full power, whenever they might catch
a robber in the act, to slay him without asking questions.
People in numbers began to mount guard throughout the city every
night, but, notwithstanding this, robberies continued to be
committed. After a time all the merchants having again met together
went before the magistrate, and said, "O incarnation of justice! you
have changed your officers, you have hired watchmen, and you have
established patrols: nevertheless the thieves have not diminished, and
plundering is ever taking place."
Thereupon Gunshankar carried them to the palace, and made them lay
their petition at the feet of the king Randhir. That Raja, having
consoled them, sent them home, saying, "Be ye of good cheer. I will
to-night adopt a new plan, which, with the blessing of the Bhagwan,
shall free ye from further anxiety."
Observe, O Vikram, that Randhir was one of those concerning whom
the poet sang—
The unwise run from one end to the other.
Not content with becoming highly respectable, correct, and even
unimpeachable in point of character, he reformed even his
reformation, and he did much more than he was required to do.
When Canopus began to sparkle gaily in the southern skies, the
king arose and prepared for a night's work. He disguised his face by
smearing it with a certain paint, by twirling his moustachios up to
his eyes, by parting his beard upon his chin, and conducting the two
ends towards his ears, and by tightly tying a hair from a horse's tail
over his nose, so as quite to change its shape. He then wrapped
himself in a coarse outer garment, girt his loins, buckled on his
sword, drew his shield upon his arm, and without saying a word to
those within the palace, he went out into the streets alone, and on
It was dark, and Raja Randhir walked through the silent city for
nearly an hour without meeting anyone. As, however, he passed through
a back street in the merchants' quarter, he saw what appeared to be a
homeless dog, lying at the foot of a house-wall. He approached it, and
up leaped a human figure, whilst a loud voice cried, "Who art thou?"
Randhir replied, "I am a thief; who art thou?"
"And I also am a thief," rejoined the other, much pleased at
hearing this; "come, then, and let us make together. But what art
thou, a high-loper or a lully-prigger[FN#97]?"
"A little more ceremony between coves in the lorst,[FN#98]"
whispered the king, speaking as a flash man, "were not out of place.
But, look sharp, mind old Oliver,[FN#99] or the lamb-skin man[FN#100]
will have the pull of us, and as sure as eggs is eggs we shall be
scragged as soon as lagged.[FN#101]"
"Well, keep your red rag[FN#102] quiet," grumbled the other, "and
let us be working."
Then the pair, king and thief, began work in right earnest. The
gang seemed to swarm in the street. They were drinking spirits,
slaying victims, rubbing their bodies with oil, daubing their eyes
with lamp-black, and repeating incantations to enable them to see in
the darkness; others were practicing the lessons of the god with the
golden spear,[FN#103] and carrying out the four modes of breaching a
house: 1. Picking out burnt bricks. 2.Cutting through unbaked ones
when old, when softened by recent damp, by exposure to the sun, or by
saline exudations. 3. Throwing water on a mud wall; and 4. Boring
through one of wood. The sons of Skanda were making breaches in the
shape of lotus blossoms, the sun, the new moon, the lake, and the
water jar, and they seemed to be anointed with magic unguents, so that
no eye could behold, no weapon harm them.
At length having filled his bag with costly plunder, the thief said
to the king, "Now, my rummy cove, we'll be off to the flash ken,
where the lads and the morts are waiting to wet their whistles."
Randhir, who as a king was perfectly familiar with "thieves'
Latin," took heart, and resolved to hunt out the secrets of the den.
On the way, his companion, perfectly satisfied with the importance
which the new cove had attached to a rat-hole,[FN#104] and convinced
that he was a true robber, taught him the whistle, the word, and the
sign peculiar to the gang, and promised him that he should smack the
lit[FN#105] that night before "turning in."
So saying the thief rapped twice at the city gate, which was at
once opened to him, and preceding his accomplice led the way to a rock
about two kos (four miles) distant from the walls. Before entering
the dark forest at the foot of the eminence, the robber stood still
for a moment and whistled twice through his fingers with a shrill
scream that rang through the silent glades. After a few minutes the
signal was answered by the hooting of an owl, which the robber
acknowledged by shrieking like a jackal. Thereupon half a dozen armed
men arose from their crouching places in the grass, and one advanced
towards the new comers to receive the sign. It was given, and they
both passed on, whilst the guard sank, as it were, into the bowels of
the earth. All these things Randhir carefully remarked: besides which
he neglected not to take note of all the distinguishable objects that
lay on the road, and, when he entered the wood, he scratched with his
dagger all the tree trunks within reach.
After a sharp walk the pair reached a high perpendicular sheet of
rock, rising abruptly from a clear space in the jungle, and profusely
printed over with vermilion hands. The thief, having walked up to it,
and made his obeisance, stooped to the ground, and removed a bunch of
grass. The two then raised by their united efforts a heavy trap door,
through which poured a stream of light, whilst a confused hubbub of
voices was heard below.
"This is the ken," said the robber, preparing to descend a thin
ladder of bamboo, "follow me!" And he disappeared with his bag of
The king did as he was bid, and the pair entered together a large
hall, or rather a cave, which presented a singular spectacle. It was
lighted up by links fixed to the sombre walls, which threw a smoky
glare over the place, and the contrast after the deep darkness
reminded Randhir of his mother's descriptions of Patal-puri, the
infernal city. Carpets of every kind, from the choicest tapestry to
the coarsest rug, were spread upon the ground, and were strewed with
bags, wallets, weapons, heaps of booty, drinking cups, and all the
materials of debauchery.
Passing through this cave the thief led Randhir into another, which
was full of thieves, preparing for the pleasures of the night. Some
were changing garments, ragged and dirtied by creeping through gaps
in the houses: others were washing the blood from their hands and
feet; these combed out their long dishevelled, dusty hair: those
anointed their skins with perfumed cocoa-nut oil. There were all
manner of murderers present, a villanous collection of Kartikeya's
and Bhawani's[FN#106] crew. There were stabbers with their poniards
hung to lanyards lashed round their naked waists, Dhaturiya-
poisoners[FN#107] distinguished by the little bag slung under the left
arm, and Phansigars[FN#108] wearing their fatal kerchiefs round their
necks. And Randhir had reason to thank the good deed in the last life
that had sent him there in such strict disguise, for amongst the
robbers he found, as might be expected, a number of his own people,
spies and watchmen, guards and patrols.
The thief, whose importance of manner now showed him to be the
chief of the gang, was greeted with applause as he entered the robing
room, and he bade all make salam to the new companion. A number of
questions concerning the success of the night's work was quickly put
and answered: then the company, having got ready for the revel,
flocked into the first cave. There they sat down each in his own
place, and began to eat and drink and make merry.
After some hours the flaring torches began to burn out, and
drowsiness to overpower the strongest heads. Most of the robbers
rolled themselves up in the rugs, and covering their heads, went to
sleep. A few still sat with their backs to the wall, nodding drowsily
or leaning on one side, and too stupefied with opium and hemp to make
At that moment a servant woman, whom the king saw for the first
time, came into the cave, and looking at him exclaimed, "O Raja! how
came you with these wicked men? Do you run away as fast as you can, or
they will surely kill you when they awake."
"I do not know the way; in which direction am I to go?" asked
The woman then showed him the road. He threaded the confused mass
of snorers, treading with the foot of a tiger-cat, found the ladder,
raised the trap-door by exerting all his strength, and breathed once
more the open air of heaven. And before plunging into the depths of
the wood he again marked the place where the entrance lay and
carefully replaced the bunch of grass.
Hardly had Raja Randhir returned to the palace, and removed the
traces of his night's occupation, when he received a second
deputation of the merchants, complaining bitterly and with the
longest faces about their fresh misfortunes.
"O pearl of equity!" said the men of money, "but yesterday you
consoled us with the promise of some contrivance by the blessing of
which our houses and coffers would be safe from theft; whereas our
goods have never yet suffered so severely as during the last twelve
Again Randhir dismissed them, swearing that this time he would
either die or destroy the wretches who had been guilty of such
Then having mentally prepared his measures, the Raja warned a
company of archers to hold themselves in readiness for secret
service, and as each one of his own people returned from the robbers'
cave he had him privily arrested and put to death—because the
deceased, it is said, do not, like Baitals, tell tales. About
nightfall, when he thought that the thieves, having finished their
work of plunder, would meet together as usual for wassail and
debauchery, he armed himself, marched out his men, and led them to
the rock in the jungle.
But the robbers, aroused by the disappearance of the new
companion, had made enquiries and had gained intelligence of the
impending danger. They feared to flee during the daytime, lest being
tracked they should be discovered and destroyed in detail. When night
came they hesitated to disperse, from the certainty that they would be
captured in the morning. Then their captain, who throughout had been
of one opinion, proposed to them that they should resist, and
promised them success if they would hear his words. The gang
respected him, for he was known to be brave: they all listened to his
advice, and they promised to be obedient.
As young night began to cast transparent shade upon the jungle
ground, the chief of the thieves mustered his men, inspected their
bows and arrows, gave them encouraging words, and led them forth from
the cave. Having placed them in ambush he climbed the rock to espy the
movements of the enemy, whilst others applied their noses and ears to
the level ground. Presently the moon shone full upon Randhir and his
band of archers, who were advancing quickly and carelessly, for they
expected to catch the robbers in their cave. The captain allowed them
to march nearly through the line of ambush. Then he gave the signal,
and at that moment the thieves, rising suddenly from the bush fell
upon the royal troops and drove them back in confusion.
The king also fled, when the chief of the robbers shouted out,
"Hola! thou a Rajput and running away from combat?" Randhir hearing
this halted, and the two, confronting each other, bared their blades
and began to do battle with prodigious fury.
The king was cunning of fence, and so was the thief. They opened
the duel, as skilful swordsmen should, by bending almost double,
skipping in a circle, each keeping his eye well fixed upon the other,
with frowning brows and contemptuous lips; at the same time executing
divers gambados and measured leaps, springing forward like frogs and
backward like monkeys, and beating time with their sabres upon their
shields, which rattled like drums.
Then Randhir suddenly facing his antagonist, cut at his legs with a
loud cry, but the thief sprang in the air, and the blade whistled
harmlessly under him. Next moment the robber chief's sword, thrice
whirled round his head, descended like lightning in a slanting
direction towards the king's left shoulder: the latter, however,
received it upon his target and escaped all hurt, though he staggered
with the violence of the blow.
And thus they continued attacking each other, parrying and
replying, till their breath failed them and their hands and wrists
were numbed and cramped with fatigue. They were so well matched in
courage, strength, and address, that neither obtained the least
advantage, till the robber's right foot catching a stone slid from
under him, and thus he fell to the ground at the mercy of his enemy.
The thieves fled, and the Raja, himself on his prize, tied his hands
behind him, and brought him back to the city at the point of his good
The next morning Randhir visited his prisoner, whom he caused to
be bathed, and washed, and covered with fine clothes. He then had him
mounted on a camel and sent him on a circuit of the city, accompanied
by a crier proclaiming aloud: "Who hears! who hears! who hears! the
king commands! This is the thief who has robbed and plundered the city
of Chandrodaya. Let all men therefore assemble themselves together
this evening in the open space outside the gate leading towards the
sea. And let them behold the penalty of evil deeds, and learn to be
Randhir had condemned the thief to be crucified,[FN#109] nailed
and tied with his hands and feet stretched out at full length, in an
erect posture until death; everything he wished to eat was ordered to
him in order to prolong life and misery. And when death should draw
near, melted gold was to be poured down his throat till it should
burst from his neck and other parts of his body.
In the evening the thief was led out for execution, and by chance
the procession passed close to the house of a wealthy landowner. He
had a favourite daughter named Shobhani, who was in the flower of her
youth and very lovely; every day she improved, and every moment added
to her grace and beauty. The girl had been carefully kept out of sight
of mankind, never being allowed outside the high walls of the garden,
because her nurse, a wise woman much trusted in the neighbourhood, had
at the hour of death given a solemn warning to her parents. The
prediction was that the maiden should be the admiration of the city,
and should die a Sati- widow[FN#110] before becoming a wife. From that
hour Shobhani was kept as a pearl in its casket by her father, who had
vowed never to survive her, and had even fixed upon the place and
style of his suicide.
But the shaft of Fate[FN#111] strikes down the vulture sailing
above the clouds, and follows the worm into the bowels of the earth,
and pierces the fish at the bottom of the ocean—how then can mortal
man expect to escape it? As the robber chief, mounted upon the camel,
was passing to the cross under the old householder's windows, a fire
breaking out in the women's apartments, drove the inmates into the
rooms looking upon the street.
The hum of many voices arose from the solid pavement of heads:
"This is the thief who has been robbing the whole city; let him
tremble now, for Randhir will surely crucify him!"
In beauty and bravery of bearing, as in strength and courage, no
man in Chandrodaya surpassed the robber, who, being magnificently
dressed, looked, despite his disgraceful cavalcade, like the son of a
king. He sat with an unmoved countenance, hardly hearing in his pride
the scoffs of the mob; calm and steady when the whole city was
frenzied with anxiety because of him. But as he heard the word
"tremble" his lips quivered, his eyes flashed fire, and deep lines
gathered between his eyebrows.
Shobhani started with a scream from the casement behind which she
had hid herself, gazing with an intense womanly curiosity into the
thoroughfare. The robber's face was upon a level with, and not half a
dozen feet from, her pale cheeks. She marked his handsome features,
and his look of wrath made her quiver as if it had been a flash of
lightning. Then she broke away from the fascination of his youth and
beauty, and ran breathless to her father, saying:
"Go this moment and get that thief released!
"The old housekeeper replied: "That thief has been pilfering and
plundering the whole city, and by his means the king's archers were
defeated; why, then, at my request, should our most gracious Raja
Randhir release him?"
Shobhani, almost beside herself, exclaimed: "If by giving up your
whole property, you can induce the Raja to release him, then
instantly so do; if he does not come to me, I must give up my life!"
The maiden then covered her head with her veil, and sat down in
the deepest despair, whilst her father, hearing her words, burst into
a cry of grief, and hastened to present himself before the Raja. He
"O great king, be pleased to receive four lakhs of rupees, and to
release this thief."
But the king replied: "He has been robbing the whole city, and by
reason of him my guards have been destroyed. I cannot by any means
Then the old householder finding, as he had expected the Raja
inexorable, and not to be moved, either by tears or bribes, or by the
cruel fate of the girl, returned home with fire in his heart, and
"Daughter, I have said and done all that is possible but it avails
me nought with the king. Now, then, we die."
In the mean time, the guards having led the thief all round the
city, took him outside the gates, and made him stand near the cross.
Then the messengers of death arrived from the palace, and the
executioners began to nail his limbs. He bore the agony with the
fortitude of the brave; but when he heard what had been done by the
old householder's daughter, he raised his voice and wept bitterly, as
though his heart had been bursting, and almost with the same breath he
laughed heartily as at a feast. All were startled by his merriment;
coming as it did at a time when the iron was piercing his flesh, no
man could see any reason for it.
When he died, Shobhani, who was married to him in the spirit,
recited to herself these sayings:
"There are thirty-five millions of hairs on the human body. The
woman who ascends the pile with her husband will remain so many years
in heaven. As the snake-catcher draws the serpent from his hole, so
she, rescuing her husband from hell, rejoices with him; aye, though he
may have sunk to a region of torment, be restrained in dreadful
bonds, have reached the place of anguish, be exhausted of strength,
and afflicted and tortured for his crimes. No other effectual duty is
known for virtuous women at any time after the death of their lords,
except casting themselves into the same fire. As long as a woman in
her successive transmigrations, shall decline burning herself, like a
faithful wife, in the same fire with her deceased lord, so long shall
she not be exempted from springing again to life in the body of some
Therefore the beautiful Shobhani, virgin and wife, resolved to burn
herself, and to make the next life of the thief certain. She showed
her courage by thrusting her finger into a torch flame till it became
a cinder, and she solemnly bathed in the nearest stream.
A hole was dug in the ground, and upon a bed of green tree-trunks
were heaped hemp, pitch, faggots, and clarified butter, to form the
funeral pyre. The dead body, anointed, bathed, and dressed in new
clothes, was then laid upon the heap, which was some two feet high.
Shobhani prayed that as long as fourteen Indras reign, or as many
years as there are hairs in her head, she might abide in heaven with
her husband, and be waited upon by the heavenly dancers. She then
presented her ornaments and little gifts of corn to her friends, tied
some cotton round both wrists, put two new combs in her hair, painted
her forehead, and tied up in the end of her body-cloth clean parched
rice[FN#112] and cowrie-shells. These she gave to the bystanders, as
she walked seven times round the funeral pyre, upon which lay the
body. She then ascended the heap of wood, sat down upon it, and taking
the thief's head in her lap, without cords or levers or upper layer or
faggots, she ordered the pile to be lighted. The crowd standing around
set fire to it in several places, drummed their drums, blew their
conchs, and raised a loud cry of "Hari bol! Hari bol! [FN#113]" Straw
was thrown on, and pitch and clarified butter were freely poured out.
But Shobhani's was a Sahamaran, a blessed easy death: no part of her
body was seen to move after the pyre was lighted—in fact, she seemed
to die before the flame touched her.
By the blessing of his daughter's decease, the old householder
beheaded himself.[FN#114] He caused an instrument to be made in the
shape of a half-moon with an edge like a razor, and fitting the back
of his neck. At both ends of it, as at the beam of a balance, chains
were fastened. He sat down with eyes closed; he was rubbed with the
purifying clay of the holy river, Vaiturani[FN#115]; and he repeated
the proper incantations. Then placing his feet upon the extremities of
the chains, he suddenly jerked up his neck, and his severed head
rolled from his body upon the ground. What a happy death was this!
The Baital was silent, as if meditating on the fortunate
transmigration which the old householder had thus secured.
"But what could the thief have been laughing at, sire?" asked the
young prince Dharma Dhwaj of his father.
"At the prodigious folly of the girl, my son," replied the warrior
"I am indebted once more to your majesty," burst out the Baital,
"for releasing me from this unpleasant position, but the Raja's
penetration is again at fault. Not to leave your royal son and heir
labouring under a false impression, before going I will explain why
the brave thief burst into tears, and why he laughed at such a moment.
"He wept when he reflected that he could not requite her kindness
in being willing to give up everything she had in the world to save
his life; and this thought deeply grieved him.
Then it struck him as being passing strange that she had begun to
love him when the last sand of his life was well nigh run out; that
wondrous are the ways of the revolving heavens which bestow wealth
upon the niggard that cannot use it, wisdom upon the bad man who will
misuse it, a beautiful wife upon the fool who cannot protect her, and
fertilizing showers upon the stony hills. And thinking over these
things, the gallant and beautiful thief laughed aloud.
"Before returning to my sires-tree," continued the Vampire, "as I
am about to do in virtue of your majesty's unintelligent reply, I may
remark that men may laugh and cry, or may cry and laugh, about
everything in this world, from their neighbours' deaths, which, as a
general rule, in no wise concern them, to their own latter ends, which
do concern them exceedingly. For my part, I am in the habit of
laughing at everything, because it animates the brain, stimulates the
lungs, beautifies the countenance, and—for the moment, good-bye, Raja
The warrior king, being forewarned this time, shifted the bundle
containing the Baital from his back to under his arm, where he
pressed it with all his might.
This proceeding, however, did not prevent the Vampire from
slipping back to his tree, and leaving an empty cloth with the Raja.
Presently the demon was trussed up as usual; a voice sounded
behind Vikram, and the loquacious thing again began to talk.
On the lovely banks of Jumna's stream there was a city known as
Dharmasthal—the Place of Duty; and therein dwelt a certain Brahman
called Keshav. He was a very pious man, in the constant habit of
performing penance and worship upon the river Sidi. He modelled his
own clay images instead of buying them from others; he painted holy
stones red at the top, and made to them offerings of flowers, fruit,
water, sweetmeats, and fried peas. He had become a learned man
somewhat late in life, having, until twenty years old, neglected his
reading, and addicted himself to worshipping the beautiful youth
Kama-Deva[FN#116] and Rati his wife, accompanied by the cuckoo, the
humming-bee, and sweet breezes.
One day his parents having rebuked him sharply for his
ungovernable conduct, Keshav wandered to a neighbouring hamlet, and
hid himself in the tall fig-tree which shadowed a celebrated image of
Panchanan.[FN#117] Presently an evil thought arose in his head: he
defiled the god, and threw him into the nearest tank.
The next morning, when the person arrived whose livelihood
depended on the image, he discovered that his god was gone. He
returned into the village distracted, and all was soon in an uproar
about the lost deity.
In the midst of this confusion the parents of Keshav arrived,
seeking for their son; and a man in the crowd declared that he had
seen a young man sitting in Panchanan's tree, but what had become of
the god he knew not.
The runaway at length appeared, and the suspicions of the villagers
fell upon him as the stealer of Panchanan. He confessed the fact,
pointed out the place where he had thrown the stone, and added that
he had polluted the god. All hands and eyes were raised in amazement
at this atrocious crime, and every one present declared that Panchanan
would certainly punish the daring insult by immediate death. Keshav
was dreadfully frightened; he began to obey his parents from that very
hour, and applied to his studies so sedulously that he soon became the
most learned man of his country.
Now Keshav the Brahman had a daughter whose name was the
Madhumalati or Sweet Jasmine. She was very beautiful. Whence did the
gods procure the materials to form so exquisite a face? They took a
portion of the most excellent part of the moon to form that beautiful
face? Does any one seek a proof of this? Let him look at the empty
places left in the moon. Her eyes resembled the full-blown blue
nymphaea; her arms the charming stalk of the lotus; her flowing
tresses the thick darkness of night.
When this lovely person arrived at a marriageable age, her mother,
father, and brother, all three became very anxious about her. For the
wise have said, "A daughter nubile but without a husband is ever a
calamity hanging over a house." And, "Kings, women, and climbing
plants love those who are near them." Also, "Who is there that has not
suffered from the sex? for a woman cannot be kept in due subjection,
either by gifts or kindness, or correct conduct, or the greatest
services, or the laws of morality, or by the terror of punishment, for
she cannot discriminate between good and evil."
It so happened that one day Keshav the Brahman went to the
marriage of a certain customer of his,[FN#118] and his son repaired
to the house of a spiritual preceptor in order to read. During their
absence, a young man came to the house, when the Sweet Jasmine's
mother, inferring his good qualities from his good looks, said to him,
"I will give to thee my daughter in marriage." The father also had
promised his daughter to a Brahman youth whom he had met at the house
of his employer; and the brother likewise had betrothed his sister to
a fellow student at the place where he had gone to read.
After some days father and son came home, accompanied by these two
suitors, and in the house a third was already seated. The name of the
first was Tribikram, of the second Baman, and of the third Madhusadan.
The three were equal in mind and body, in knowledge, and in age.
Then the father, looking upon them, said to himself, "Ho! there is
one bride and three bridegrooms; to whom shall I give, and to whom
shall I not give? We three have pledged our word to these three. A
strange circumstance has occurred; what must we do?"
He then proposed to them a trial of wisdom, and made them agree
that he who should quote the most excellent saying of the wise should
become his daughter's husband.
Quoth Tribikram: "Courage is tried in war; integrity in the
payment of debt and interest; friendship in distress; and the
faithfulness of a wife in the day of poverty."
Baman proceeded: "That woman is destitute of virtue who in her
father's house is not in subjection, who wanders to feasts and
amusements, who throws off her veil in the presence of men, who
remains as a guest in the houses of strangers, who is much devoted to
sleep, who drinks inebriating beverages, and who delights in distance
from her husband."
"Let none," pursued Madhusadan, "confide in the sea, nor in
whatever has claws or horns, or who carries deadly weapons; neither
in a woman, nor in a king."
Whilst the Brahman was doubting which to prefer, and rather
inclining to the latter sentiment, a serpent bit the beautiful girl,
and in a few hours she died.
Stunned by this awful sudden death, the father and the three
suitors sat for a time motionless. They then arose, used great
exertions, and brought all kinds of sorcerers, wise men and women who
charm away poisons by incantations. These having seen the girl said,
"She cannot return to life." The first declared, "A person always dies
who has been bitten by a snake on the fifth, sixth, eighth, ninth, and
fourteenth days of the lunar month.'' The second asserted, "One who
has been bitten on a Saturday or a Tuesday does not survive." The
third opined, "Poison infused during certain six lunar mansions cannot
be got under." Quoth the fourth, "One who has been bitten in any organ
of sense, the lower lip, the cheek, the neck, or the stomach, cannot
escape death." The fifth said, "In this case even Brahma, the Creator,
could not restore life—of what account, then, are we? Do you perform
the funeral rites; we will depart."
Thus saying, the sorcerers went their way. The mourning father
took up his daughter's corpse and caused it to be burnt, in the place
where dead bodies are usually burnt, and returned to his house.
After that the three young men said to one another, "We must now
seek happiness elsewhere. And what better can we do than obey the
words of Indra, the God of Air, who spake thus ?—
"'For a man who does not travel about there is no felicity, and a
good man who stays at home is a bad man. Indra is the friend of him
who travels. Travel!
"'A traveller's legs are like blossoming branches, and he himself
grows and gathers the fruit. All his wrongs vanish, destroyed by his
exertion on the roadside. Travel!
"'The fortune of a man who sits, sits also; it rises when he rises;
it sleeps when he sleeps; it moves well when he moves. Travel!
"'A man who sleeps is like the Iron Age. A man who awakes is like
the Bronze Age. A man who rises up is like the Silver Age. A man who
travels is like the Golden Age. Travel!
"'A traveller finds honey; a traveller finds sweet figs. Look at
the happiness of the sun, who travailing never tires. Travel!"'
Before parting they divided the relics of the beloved one, and then
they went their way.
Tribikram, having separated and tied up the burnt bones, became
one of the Vaisheshikas, in those days a powerful sect. He solemnly
forswore the eight great crimes, namely: feeding at night; slaying any
animal; eating the fruit of trees that give milk, or pumpkins or young
bamboos: tasting honey or flesh; plundering the wealth of others;
taking by force a married woman; eating flowers, butter, or cheese;
and worshipping the gods of other religions. He learned that the
highest act of virtue is to abstain from doing injury to sentient
creatures; that crime does not justify the destruction of life; and
that kings, as the administrators of criminal justice, are the
greatest of sinners. He professed the five vows of total abstinence
from falsehood, eating flesh or fish, theft, drinking spirits, and
marriage. He bound himself to possess nothing beyond a white
loin-cloth, a towel to wipe the mouth, a beggar's dish, and a brush of
woollen threads to sweep the ground for fear of treading on insects.
And he was ordered to fear secular affairs; the miseries of a future
state; the receiving from others more than the food of a day at once;
all accidents; provisions, if connected with the destruction of animal
life; death and disgrace; also to please all, and to obtain compassion
He attempted to banish his love. He said to himself, "Surely it was
owing only to my pride and selfishness that I ever looked upon a
woman as capable of affording happiness; and I thought, 'Ah! ah!
thine eyes roll about like the tail of the water-wagtail, thy lips
resemble the ripe fruit, thy bosom is like the lotus bud, thy form is
resplendent as gold melted in a crucible, the moon wanes through
desire to imitate the shadow of thy face, thou resemblest the
pleasure-house of Cupid; the happiness of all time is concentrated in
thee; a touch from thee would surely give life to a dead image; at thy
approach a living admirer would be changed by joy into a lifeless
stone; obtaining thee I can face all the horrors of war; and were I
pierced by showers of arrows, one glance of thee would heal all my
"My mind is now averted from the world. Seeing her I say, 'Is this
the form by which men are bewitched? This is a basket covered with
skin; it contains bones, flesh, blood, and impurities. The stupid
creature who is captivated by this—is there a cannibal feeding in
Currim a greater cannibal than he? These persons call a thing made up
of impure matter a face, and drink its charms as a drunkard swallows
the inebriating liquor from his cup. The blind, infatuated beings! Why
should I be pleased or displeased with this body, composed of flesh
and blood? It is my duty to seek Him who is the Lord of this body, and
to disregard everything which gives rise either to pleasure or to
Baman, the second suitor, tied up a bundle of his beloved one's
ashes, and followed—somewhat prematurely—the precepts of the great
lawgiver Manu. "When the father of a family perceives his muscles
becoming flaccid, and his hair grey, and sees the child of his child,
let him then take refuge in a forest. Let him take up his consecrated
fire and all his domestic implements for making oblations to it, and,
departing from the town to the lonely wood, let him dwell in it with
complete power over his organs of sense and of action. With many sorts
of pure food, such as holy sages used to eat, with green herbs, roots,
and fruit, let him perform the five great sacraments, introducing them
with due ceremonies. Let him wear a black antelope-hide, or a vesture
of bark; let him bathe evening and morning; let him suffer the hair of
his head, his beard and his nails to grow continually. Let him slide
backwards and forwards on the ground; or let him stand a whole day on
tiptoe; or let him continue in motion, rising and sitting alternately;
but at sunrise, at noon, and at sunset, let him go to the waters and
bathe In the hot season let him sit exposed to five fires, four
blazing around him, with the sun above; in the rains let him stand
uncovered, without even a mantle, where the clouds pour the heaviest
showers; in the cold season let him wear damp clothes, and let him
increase by degrees the austerity of his devotions. Then, having
reposited his holy fires, as the law directs, in his mind, let him
live without external fire, without a mansion, wholly silent, feeding
on roots and fruit."
Meanwhile Madhusadan the third, having taken a wallet and
neckband, became a Jogi, and began to wander far and wide, living on
nothing but chaff, and practicing his devotions. In order to see
Brahma he attended to the following duties; 1. Hearing; 2.
Meditation; 3. Fixing the Mind; 4. Absorbing the Mind. He combated
the three evils, restlessness, injuriousness, voluptuousness by
settling the Deity in his spirit, by subjecting his senses, and by
destroying desire. Thus he would do away with the illusion (Maya)
which conceals all true knowledge. He repeated the name of the Deity
till it appeared to him in the form of a Dry Light or glory. Though
connected with the affairs of life, that is, with affairs belonging to
a body containing blood, bones, and impurities; to organs which are
blind, palsied, and full of weakness and error; to a mind filled with
thirst, hunger, sorrow, infatuation; to confirmed habits, and to the
fruits of former births: still he strove not to view these things as
realities. He made a companion of a dog, honouring it with his own
food, so as the better to think on spirit. He practiced all the five
operations connected with the vital air, or air collected in the body.
He attended much to Pranayama, or the gradual suppression of
breathing, and he secured fixedness of mind as follows. By placing his
sight and thoughts on the tip of his nose he perceived smell; on the
tip of his tongue he realized taste, on the root of his tongue he knew
sound, and so forth. He practiced the eighty-four Asana or postures,
raising his hand to the wonders of the heavens, till he felt no longer
the inconveniences of heat or cold, hunger or thirst. He particularly
preferred the Padma or lotus-posture, which consists of bringing the
feet to the sides, holding the right in the left hand and the left in
the right. In the work of suppressing his breath he permitted its
respiration to reach at furthest twelve fingers' breadth, and
gradually diminished the distance from his nostrils till he could
confine it to the length of twelve fingers from his nose, and even
after restraining it for some time he would draw it from no greater
distance than from his heart. As respects time, he began by retaining
inspiration for twenty-six seconds, and he enlarged this period
gradually till he became perfect. He sat cross-legged, closing with
his fingers all the avenues of inspiration, and he practiced
Prityahara, or the power of restraining the members of the body and
mind, with meditation and concentration, to which there are four
enemies, viz., a sleepy heart, human passions, a confused mind, and
attachment to anything but the one Brahma. He also cultivated Yama,
that is, inoffensiveness, truth, honesty, the forsaking of all evil in
the world, and the refusal of gifts except for sacrifice, and Nihama,
i.e., purity relative to the use of water after defilement, pleasure
in everything whether in prosperity or adversity, renouncing food when
hungry, and keeping down the body. Thus delivered from these four
enemies of the flesh, he resembled the unruffled flame of the lamp,
and by Brahmagnana, or meditating on the Deity, placing his mind on
the sun, moon, fire, or any other luminous body, or within his heart,
or at the bottom of his throat, or in the centre of his skull, he was
enabled to ascend from gross images of omnipotence to the works and
the divine wisdom of the glorious original.
One day Madhusadan, the Jogi, went to a certain house for food,
and the householder having seen him began to say, "Be so good as to
take your food here this day!" The visitor sat down, and when the
victuals were ready, the host caused his feet and hands to be washed,
and leading him to the Chauka, or square place upon which meals are
served, seated him and sat by him. And he quoted the scripture: "No
guest must be dismissed in the evening by a housekeeper: he is sent by
the returning sun, and whether he come in fit season or unseasonably,
he must not sojourn in the house without entertainment: let me not eat
any delicate food, without asking my guest to partake of it: the
satisfaction of a guest will assuredly bring the housekeeper wealth,
reputation, long life, and a place in heaven."
The householder's wife then came to serve up the food, rice and
split peas, oil, and spices, all cooked in a new earthen pot with
pure firewood. Part of the meal was served and the rest remained to
be served, when the woman's little child began to cry aloud and to
catch hold of its mother's dress. She endeavoured to release herself,
but the boy would not let go, and the more she coaxed the more he
cried, and was obstinate. On this the mother became angry, took up the
boy and threw him upon the fire, which instantly burnt him to ashes.
Madhusadan, the Jogi, seeing this, rose up without eating. The
master of the house said to him, "Why eatest thou not?" He replied,
"I am ' Atithi,' that is to say, to be entertained at your house, but
how can one eat under the roof of a person who has committed such a
Rakshasa-like (devilish) deed? Is it not said, 'He who does not govern
his passions, lives in vain'? 'A foolish king, a person puffed up with
riches, and a weak child, desire that which cannot be procured'? Also,
'A king destroys his enemies, even when flying; and the touch of an
elephant, as well as the breath of a serpent, are fatal; but the
wicked destroy even while laughing'?"
Hearing this, the householder smiled; presently he arose and went
to another part of the tenement, and brought back with him a book,
treating on Sanjivnividya, or the science of restoring the dead to
life. This he had taken from its hidden place, two beams almost
touching one another with the ends in the opposite wall. The precious
volume was in single leaves, some six inches broad by treble that
length, and the paper was stained with yellow orpiment and the juice
of tamarind seeds to keep away insects.
The householder opened the cloth containing the book, untied the
flat boards at the top and bottom, and took out from it a charm.
Having repeated this Mantra, with many ceremonies, he at once
restored the child to life, saying, "Of all precious things,
knowledge is the most valuable; other riches may be stolen, or
diminished by expenditure, but knowledge is immortal, and the greater
the expenditure the greater the increase; it can be shared with none,
and it defies the power of the thief."
The Jogi, seeing this marvel, took thought in his heart, "If I
could obtain that book, I would restore my beloved to life, and give
up this course of uncomfortable postures and difficulty of breathing."
With this resolution he sat down to his food, and remained in the
At length night came, and after a time, all, having eaten supper,
and gone to their sleeping-places, lay down. The Jogi also went to
rest in one part of the house, but did not allow sleep to close his
eyes. When he thought that a fourth part of the hours of darkness had
sped, and that all were deep in slumber, then he got up very quietly,
and going into the room of the master of the house, he took down the
book from the beam-ends and went his ways.
Madhusadan, the Jogi, went straight to the place where the
beautiful Sweet Jasmine had been burned. There he found his two
rivals sitting talking together and comparing experiences. They
recognized him at once, and cried aloud to him, "Brother! thou also
hast been wandering over the world; tell us this—hast thou learned
anything which can profit us?" He replied, "I have learned the science
of restoring the dead to life"; upon which they both exclaimed, "If
thou hast really learned such knowledge, restore our beloved to life."
Madhusadan proceeded to make his incantations, despite terrible
sights in the air, the cries of jackals, owls, crows, cats, asses,
vultures, dogs, and lizards, and the wrath of innumerable invisible
beings, such as messengers of Yama (Pluto), ghosts, devils, demons,
imps, fiends, devas, succubi, and others. All the three lovers drawing
blood from their own bodies, offered it to the goddess Chandi,
repeating the following incantation, "Hail! supreme delusion! Hail!
goddess of the universe! Hail! thou who fulfillest the desires of all.
May I presume to offer thee the blood of my body; and wilt thou deign
to accept it, and be propitious towards me!"
They then made a burnt-offering of their flesh, and each one
prayed, "Grant me, O goddess! to see the maiden alive again, in
proportion to the fervency with which I present thee with mine own
flesh, invoking thee to be propitious to me. Salutation to thee again
and again, under the mysterious syllables any! any!"
Then they made a heap of the bones and the ashes, which had been
carefully kept by Tribikram and Baman. As the Jogi Madhusadan
proceeded with his incantation, a white vapour arose from the ground,
and, gradually condensing, assumed a perispiritual form— the fluid
envelope of the soul. The three spectators felt their blood freeze as
the bones and the ashes were gradually absorbed into the before
shadowy shape, and they were restored to themselves only when the
maiden Madhuvati begged to be taken home to her mother.
Then Kama, God of Love, blinded them, and they began fiercely to
quarrel about who should have the beautiful maid. Each wanted to be
her sole master. Tribikram declared the bones to be the great fact of
the incantation; Baman swore by the ashes; and Madhusadan laughed them
both to scorn. No one could decide the dispute; the wisest doctors
were all nonplussed; and as for the Raja—well! we do not go for wit
or wisdom to kings. I wonder if the great Raja Vikram could decide
which person the woman belonged to?
"To Baman, the man who kept her ashes, fellow!" exclaimed the
hero, not a little offended by the free remarks of the fiend.
"Yet," rejoined the Baital impudently, "if Tribikram had not
preserved her bones how could she have been restored to life? And if
Madhusadan had not learned the science of restoring the dead to life
how could she have been revivified? At least, so it seems to me. But
perhaps your royal wisdom may explain."
"Devil!" said the king angrily, "Tribikram, who preserved her
bones, by that act placed himself in the position of her son;
therefore he could not marry her. Madhusadan, who, restoring her to
life, gave her life, was evidently a father to her; he could not,
then, become her husband. Therefore she was the wife of Baman, who
had collected her ashes."
"I am happy to see, O king," exclaimed the Vampire, "that in spite
of my presentiments, we are not to part company just yet. These
little trips I hold to be, like lovers' quarrels, the prelude to
closer union. With your leave we will still practice a little
And so saying, the Baital again ascended the tree, and was
"Would it not be better," thought the monarch, after recapturing
and shouldering the fugitive, "for me to sit down this time and
listen to the fellow's story? Perhaps the double exercise of walking
and thinking confuses me."
With this idea Vikram placed his bundle upon the ground, well tied
up with turband and waistband; then he seated himself cross-legged
before it, and bade his son do the same.
The Vampire strongly objected to this measure, as it was contrary,
he asserted, to the covenant between him and the Raja. Vikram replied
by citing the very words of the agreement, proving that there was no
allusion to walking or sitting.
Then the Baital became sulky, and swore that he would not utter
another word. But he, too, was bound by the chain of destiny.
Presently he opened his lips, with the normal prelude that he was
about to tell a true tale.
The Baital resumed.
Of all the learned Brahmans in the learnedest university of Gaur
(Bengal) none was so celebrated as Vishnu Swami. He could write verse
as well as prose in dead languages, not very correctly, but still,
better than all his fellows—which constituted him a distinguished
writer. He had history, theosophy, and the four Vedas of Scriptures at
his fingers' ends, he was skilled in the argute science of Nyasa or
Disputation, his mind was a mine of Pauranic or
cosmogonico-traditional lore, handed down from the ancient fathers to
the modern fathers: and he had written bulky commentaries, exhausting
all that tongue of man has to say, upon the obscure text of some old
philosopher whose works upon ethics, poetry, and rhetoric were
supposed by the sages of Gaur to contain the germs of everything
knowable. His fame went over all the country; yea, from country to
country. He was a sea of excellent qualities, the father and mother of
Brahmans, cows, and women, and the horror of loose persons,
cut-throats, courtiers, and courtesans. As a benefactor he was equal
to Karna, most liberal of heroes. In regard to truth he was equal to
the veracious king Yudhishtira.
True, he was sometimes at a loss to spell a common word in his
mother tongue, and whilst he knew to a fingerbreadth how many palms
and paces the sun, the moon, and all the stars are distant from the
earth, he would have been puzzled to tell you where the region called
Yavana[FN#119] lies. Whilst he could enumerate, in strict
chronological succession, every important event that happened five or
six million years before he was born, he was profoundly ignorant of
those that occurred in his own day. And once he asked a friend
seriously, if a cat let loose in the jungle would not in time become a
Yet did all the members of alma mater Kasi, Pandits[FN#120] as
well as students, look with awe upon Vishnu Swami's livid cheeks, and
lack-lustre eyes, grimed hands and soiled cottons.
Now it so happened that this wise and pious Brahmanic peer had
four sons, whom he brought up in the strictest and most serious way.
They were taught to repeat their prayers long before they understood a
word of them, and when they reached the age of four[FN#121] they had
read a variety of hymns and spiritual songs. Then they were set to
learn by heart precepts that inculcate sacred duties, and arguments
relating to theology, abstract and concrete.
Their father, who was also their tutor, sedulously cultivated, as
all the best works upon education advise, their implicit obedience,
humble respect, warm attachment, and the virtues and sentiments
generally. He praised them secretly and reprehended them openly, to
exercise their humility. He derided their looks, and dressed them
coarsely, to preserve them from vanity and conceit. Whenever they
anticipated a "treat," he punctually disappointed them, to teach them
self-denial. Often when he had promised them a present, he would
revoke, not break his word, in order that discipline might have a name
and habitat in his household. And knowing by experience how much
stronger than love is fear, he frequently threatened, browbeat, and
overawed them with the rod and the tongue, with the terrors of this
world, and with the horrors of the next, that they might be kept in
the right way by dread of falling into the bottomless pits that bound
it on both sides.
At the age of six they were transferred to the Chatushpati[FN#122]
or school. Every morning the teacher and his pupils assembled in the
hut where the different classes were called up by turns. They laboured
till noon, and were allowed only two hours, a moiety of the usual
time, for bathing, eating, sleep, and worship, which took up half the
period. At 3 P.M. they resumed their labours, repeating to the tutor
what they had learned by heart, and listening to the meaning of it:
this lasted till twilight. They then worshipped, ate and drank for an
hour: after which came a return of study, repeating the day's lessons,
till 10 P.M.
In their rare days of ease—for the learned priest, mindful of the
words of the wise, did not wish to dull them by everlasting work—
they were enjoined to disport themselves with the gravity and the
decorum that befit young Samditats, not to engage in night frolics,
not to use free jests or light expressions, not to draw pictures on
the walls, not to eat honey, flesh, and sweet substances turned acid,
not to talk to little girls at the well-side, on no account to wear
sandals, carry an umbrella, or handle a die even for love, and by no
means to steal their neighbours' mangoes.
As they advanced in years their attention during work time was
unremittingly directed to the Vedas. Wordly studies were almost
excluded, or to speak more correctly, whenever wordly studies were
brought upon the carpet, they were so evil entreated, that they well
nigh lost all form and feature. History became "The Annals of India on
Brahminical Principles," opposed to the Buddhistical; geography "The
Lands of the Vedas," none other being deemed worthy of notice; and
law, "The Institutes of Manu," then almost obsolete, despite their
But Jatu-harini[FN#123] had evidently changed these children
before they were born; and Shani[FN#124] must have been in the ninth
mansion when they came to light.
Each youth as he attained the mature age of twelve was formally
entered at the University of Kasi, where, without loss of time, the
first became a gambler, the second a confirmed libertine, the third a
thief, and the fourth a high Buddhist, or in other words an utter
Here King Vikram frowned at his son, a hint that he had better not
behave himself as the children of highly moral and religious parents
usually do. The young prince understood him, and briefly remarking
that such things were common in distinguished Brahman families, asked
the Baital what he meant by the word "Atheist."
Of a truth (answered the Vampire) it is most difficult to explain.
The sages assign to it three or four several meanings: first, one who
denies that the gods exist secondly, one who owns that the gods exist
but denies that they busy themselves with human affairs; and thirdly,
one who believes in the gods and in their providence, but also
believes that they are easily to be set aside. Similarly some atheists
derive all things from dead and unintelligent matter; others from
matter living and energetic but without sense or will: others from
matter with forms and qualities generable and conceptible; and others
from a plastic and methodical nature. Thus the Vishnu Swamis of the
world have invested the subject with some confusion. The simple, that
is to say, the mass of mortality, have confounded that confusion by
reproachfully applying the word atheist to those whose opinions
differ materially from their own.
But I being at present, perhaps happily for myself, a Vampire, and
having, just now, none of these human or inhuman ideas, meant simply
to say that the pious priest's fourth son being great at second and
small in the matter of first causes, adopted to their fullest extent
the doctrines of the philosophical Buddhas.[FN#125] Nothing according
to him exists but the five elements, earth, water, fire, air (or
wind), and vacuum, and from the last proceeded the penultimate, and so
forth. With the sage Patanjali, he held the universe to have the power
of perpetual progression.[FN#126] He called that Matra (matter), which
is an eternal and infinite principle, beginningless and endless.
Organization, intelligence, and design, he opined, are inherent in
matter as growth is in a tree. He did not believe in soul or spirit,
because it could not be detected in the body, and because it was a
departure from physiological analogy. The idea "I am," according to
him, was not the identification of spirit with matter, but a product
of the mutation of matter in this cloud-like, error-formed world. He
believed in Substance (Sat) and scoffed at Unsubstance (Asat). He
asserted the subtlety and globularity of atoms which are uncreate. He
made mind and intellect a mere secretion of the brain, or rather words
expressing not a thing, but a state of things. Reason was to him
developed instinct, and life an element of the atmosphere affecting
certain organisms. He held good and evil to be merely geographical
and chronological expressions, and he opined that what is called Evil
is mostly an active and transitive form of Good. Law was his great
Creator of all things, but he refused a creator of law, because such a
creator would require another creator, and so on in a
quasi-interminable series up to absurdity. This reduced his law to a
manner of haphazard. To those who, arguing against it, asked him their
favourite question, How often might a man after he had jumbled a set
of letters in a bag fling them out upon the ground before they would
fall into an exact poem? he replied that the calculation was beyond
his arithmetic, but that the man had only to jumble and fling long
enough inevitably to arrive at that end. He rejected the necessity as
well as the existence of revelation, and he did not credit the
miracles of Krishna, because, according to him, nature never suspends
her laws, and, moreover, he had never seen aught supernatural. He
ridiculed the idea of Mahapralaya, or the great destruction, for as
the world had no beginning, so it will have no end. He objected to
absorption, facetiously observing with the sage Jamadagni, that it was
pleasant to eat sweetmeats, but that for his part he did not wish to
become the sweetmeat itself. He would not believe that Vishnu had
formed the universe out of the wax in his ears. He positively asserted
that trees are not bodies in which the consequences of merit and
demerit are received. Nor would he conclude that to men were attached
rewards and punishments from all eternity. He made light of the
Sanskara, or sacrament. He admitted Satwa, Raja, and Tama,[FN#127] but
only as properties of matter. He acknowledged gross matter
(Sthulasharir), and atomic matter (Shukshma-sharir), but not
Linga-sharir, or the archetype of bodies. To doubt all things was the
foundation of his theory, and to scoff at all who would not doubt was
the corner-stone of his practice. In debate he preferred logical and
mathematical grounds, requiring a categorical "because" in answer to
his "why?" He was full of morality and natural religion, which some
say is no religion at all. He gained the name of atheist by declaring
with Gotama that there are innumerable worlds, that the earth has
nothing beneath it but the circumambient air, and that the core of the
globe is incandescent. And he was called a practical atheist—a worse
form apparently—for supporting the following dogma: "that though
creation may attest that a creator has been, it supplies no evidence
to prove that a creator still exists." On which occasion, Shiromani, a
nonplussed theologian, asked him, "By whom and for what purpose west
thou sent on earth?" The youth scoffed at the word "sent," and
replied, "Not being thy Supreme Intelligence, or Infinite Nihility, I
am unable to explain the phenomenon." Upon which he quoted—
How sunk in darkness Gaur must be
Whose guide is blind Shiromani!
At length it so happened that the four young men, having
frequently been surprised in flagrant delict, were summoned to the
dread presence of the university Gurus,[FN#128] who addressed them as
"There are four different characters in the world: he who perfectly
obeys the commands; he who practices the commands, but follows evil;
he who does neither good nor evil; and he who does nothing but evil.
The third character, it is observed, is also an offender, for he
neglects that which he ought to observe. But ye all belong to the
Then turning to the elder they said:
"In works written upon the subject of government it is advised,
'Cut off the gambler's nose and ears, hold up his name to public
contempt, and drive him out of the country, that he may thus become
an example to others. For they who play must more often lose than win;
and losing, they must either pay or not pay. In the latter case they
forfeit caste, in the former they utterly reduce themselves. And
though a gambler's wife and children are in the house, do not consider
them to be so, since it is not known when they will be lost.[FN#129]
Thus he is left in a state of perfect not-twoness (solitude), and he
will be reborn in hell.' O young man! thou hast set a bad example to
others, therefore shalt thou immediately exchange this university for
a country life."
Then they spoke to the second offender thus :—-
"The wise shun woman, who can fascinate a man in the twinkling of
an eye; but the foolish, conceiving an affection for her, forfeit in
the pursuit of pleasure their truthfulness, reputation, and good
disposition, their way of life and mode of thought, their vows and
their religion. And to such the advice of their spiritual teachers
comes amiss, whilst they make others as bad as themselves. For it is
said, 'He who has lost all sense of shame, fears not to disgrace
another; 'and there is the proverb, 'A wild cat that devours its own
young is not likely to let a rat escape; ' therefore must thou too, O
young man! quit this seat of learning with all possible expedition."
The young man proceeded to justify himself by quotations from the
Lila-shastra, his text-book, by citing such 1ines as—
Fortune favours folly and force,
and by advising the elderly professors to improve their skill in
the peace and war of love. But they drove him out with execrations.
As sagely and as solemnly did the Pandits and the Gurus reprove
the thief and the atheist, but they did not dispense the words of
wisdom in equal proportions. They warned the former that petty
larceny is punishable with fine, theft on a larger scale with
mutilation of the hand, and robbery, when detected in the act, with
loss of life[FN#130]; that for cutting purses, or for snatching them
out of a man's waistcloth,[FN#131] 'the first penalty is chopping off
the fingers, the second is the loss of the hand, and the third is
death. Then they call him a dishonour to the college, and they said,
"Thou art as a woman, the greatest of plunderers; other robbers
purloin property which is worthless, thou stealest the best; they
plunder in the night, thou in the day," and so forth. They told him
that he was a fellow who had read his Chauriya Vidya to more purpose
then his ritual.[FN#132] And they drove him from the door as he in his
shamelessness began to quote texts about the four approved ways of
housebreaking, namely, picking out burnt bricks, cutting through
unbaked bricks, throwing water on a mud wall, and boring one of wood
with a centre-bit.
But they spent six mortal hours in convicting the atheist, whose
abominations they refuted by every possible argumentation: by
inference, by comparison, and by sounds, by Sruti and Smriti, i.e.,
revelational and traditional, rational and evidential, physical and
metaphysical, analytical and synthetical, philosophical and
philological, historical, and so forth. But they found all their
endeavours vain. "For," it is said, "a man who has lost all shame,
who can talk without sense, and who tries to cheat his opponent, will
never get tired, and will never be put down." He declared that a
non-ad was far more probable than a monad (the active principle), or
the duad (the passive principle or matter.) He compared their faith
with a bubble in the water, of which we can never predicate that it
does exist or it does not. It is, he said, unreal, as when the thirsty
mistakes the meadow mist for a pool of water. He proved the eternity
of sound.[FN#133] He impudently recounted and justified all the
villanies of the Vamachari or left-handed sects. He told them that
they had taken up an ass's load of religion, and had better apply to
honest industry. He fell foul of the gods; accused Yama of kicking his
own mother, Indra of tempting the wife of his spiritual guide, and
Shiva of associating with low women. Thus, he said, no one can respect
them. Do not we say when it thunders awfully, "the rascally gods are
dying!" And when it is too wet, "these villain gods are sending too
much rain"? Briefly, the young Brahman replied to and harangued them
all so impertinently, if not pertinently, that they, waxing angry,
fell upon him with their staves, and drove him out of assembly.
Then the four thriftless youths returned home to their father, who
in his just indignation had urged their disgrace upon the Pandits and
Gurus, otherwise these dignitaries would never have resorted to such
extreme measures with so distinguished a house. He took the
opportunity of turning them out upon the world, until such time as
they might be able to show substantial signs of reform. "For," he
said, "those who have read science in their boyhood, and who in
youth, agitated by evil passions, have remained in the insolence of
ignorance, feel regret in their old age, and are consumed by the fire
of avarice." In order to supply them with a motive for the task
proposed, he stopped their monthly allowance But he added, if they
would repair to the neighbouring university of Jayasthal, and there
show themselves something better than a disgrace to their family, he
would direct their maternal uncle to supply them with all the
necessaries of food and raiment.
In vain the youths attempted, with sighs and tears and threats of
suicide, to soften the paternal heart. He was inexorable, for two
reasons. In the first place, after wondering away the wonder with
which he regarded his own failure, he felt that a stigma now attached
to the name of the pious and learned Vishnu Swami, whose lectures upon
"Management during Teens," and whose "Brahman Young Man's Own Book,''
had become standard works. Secondly, from a sense of duty, he
determined to omit nothing that might tend to reclaim the reprobates.
As regards the monthly allowance being stopped, the reverend man had
become every year a little fonder of his purse; he had hoped that his
sons would have qualified themselves to take pupils, and thus achieve
for themselves, as he phrased it, "A genteel independence"; whilst
they openly derided the career, calling it "an admirable provision
for the more indigent members of the middle classes." For which
reason he referred them to their maternal uncle, a man of known and
The four ne'er-do-weals, foreseeing what awaited them at
Jayasthal, deferred it as a last resource; determining first to see a
little life, and to push their way in the world, before condemning
themselves to the tribulations of reform.
They tried to live without a monthly allowance, and notably they
failed; it was squeezing, as men say, oil from sand. The gambler,
having no capital, and, worse still, no credit, lost two or three
suvernas[FN#134] at play, and could not pay them; in consequence of
which he was soundly beaten with iron-shod staves, and was nearly
compelled by the keeper of the hell to sell himself into slavery. Thus
he became disgusted; and telling his brethren that they would find him
at Jayasthal, he departed, with the intention of studying wisdom.
A month afterwards came the libertine's turn to be disappointed.
He could no longer afford fine new clothes; even a well-washed coat
was beyond his means. He had reckoned upon his handsome face, and he
had matured a plan for laying various elderly conquests under
contribution. Judge, therefore, his disgust when all the women— high
and low, rich and poor, old and young, ugly and beautiful—seeing the
end of his waistcloth thrown empty over his shoulder, passed him in
the streets without even deigning a look. The very shopkeepers' wives,
who once had adored his mustachio and had never ceased talking of his
"elegant" gait, despised him; and the wealthy old person who formerly
supplied his small feet with the choicest slippers, left him to
starve. Upon which he also in a state of repentance, followed his
brother to acquire knowledge.
"Am I not," quoth the thief to himself, "a cat in climbing, a deer
in running, a snake in twisting, a hawk in pouncing, a dog in
scenting?—keen as a hare, tenacious as a wolf, strong as a lion?—a
lamp in the night, a horse on a plain, a mule on a stony path, a boat
in the water, a rock on land[FN#135]?" The reply to his own questions
was of course affirmative. But despite all these fine qualities, and
notwithstanding his scrupulous strictness in invocating the
house-breaking tool and in devoting a due portion of his gains to the
gods of plunder,[FN#136] he was caught in a store-room by the
proprietor, who inexorably handed him over to justice. As he belonged
to the priestly caste,[FN#137] the fine imposed upon him was heavy. He
could not pay it, and therefore he was thrown into a dungeon, where he
remained for some time. But at last he escaped from jail, when he made
his parting bow to Kartikeya,[FN#138] stole a blanket from one of the
guards, and set out for Jayasthal, cursing his old profession.
The atheist also found himself in a position that deprived him of
all his pleasures. He delighted in afterdinner controversies, and in
bringing the light troops of his wit to bear upon the unwieldy masses
of lore and logic opposed to him by polemical Brahmans who, out of
respect for his father, did not lay an action against him for
overpowering them in theological disputation.[FN#139] In the strange
city to which he had removed no one knew the son of Vishnu Swami, and
no one cared to invite him to the house. Once he attempted his usual
trick upon a knot of sages who, sitting round a tank, were recreating
themselves with quoting mystical Sanskrit shlokas[FN#140] of
abominable long-windedness. The result was his being obliged to ply
his heels vigorously in flight from the justly incensed literati, to
whom he had said "tush" and "pish," at least a dozen times in as many
minutes. He therefore also followed the example of his brethren, and
started for Jayasthal with all possible expedition.
Arrived at the house of their maternal uncle, the young men, as by
one assent, began to attempt the unloosening of his purse-strings.
Signally failing in this and in other notable schemes, they
determined to lay in that stock of facts and useful knowledge which
might reconcile them with their father, and restore them to that happy
life at Gaur which they then despised, and which now brought tears
into their eyes.
Then they debated with one another what they should study
* * * * * * *
That branch of the preternatural, popularly called "white magic,"
found with them favour.
* * * * * * *
They chose a Guru or teacher strictly according to the orders of
their faith, a wise man of honourable family and affable demeanour,
who was not a glutton nor leprous, nor blind of one eye, nor blind of
both eyes, nor very short, nor suffering from whitlows,[FN#141]
asthma, or other disease, nor noisy and talkative, nor with any defect
about the fingers and toes, nor subject to his wife.
* * * * * * *
A grand discovery had been lately made by a certain
physiologico-philosophico- psychologico-materialist, a Jayasthalian.
In investigating the vestiges of creation, the cause of causes, the
effect of effects, and the original origin of that Matra (matter)
which some regard as an entity, others as a non-entity, others
self-existent, others merely specious and therefore unexistent, he
became convinced that the fundamental form of organic being is a
globule having another globule within itselú After inhabiting a garret
and diving into the depths of his self- consciousness for a few score
years, he was able to produce such complex globule in triturated and
roasted flint by means of—I will not say what. Happily for creation
in general, the discovery died a natural death some centuries ago. An
edifying spectacle, indeed, for the world to see; a cross old man
sitting amongst his gallipots and crucibles, creating animalculae,
providing the corpses of birds, beasts, and fishes with what is
vulgarly called life, and supplying to epigenesis all the latest
In those days the invention, being a novelty, engrossed the
thoughts of the universal learned, who were in a fever of excitement
about it. Some believed in it so implicity that they saw in every
experiment a hundred things which they did not see. Others were so
sceptical and contradictory that they would not preceive what they did
see. Those blended with each fact their own deductions, whilst these
span round every reality the web of their own prejudices. Curious to
say, the Jayasthalians, amongst whom the luminous science arose,
hailed it with delight, whilst the Gaurians derided its claim to be
considered an important addition to human knowledge.
Let me try to remember a few of their words.
"Unfortunate human nature," wrote the wise of Gaur against the
wise of Jayasthal, "wanted no crowning indignity but this! You had
already proved that the body is made of the basest element— earth.
You had argued away the immovability, the ubiquity, the permanency,
the eternity, and the divinity of the soul, for is not your favourite
axiom, ' It is the nature of limbs which thinketh in man'? The
immortal mind is, according to you, an ignoble viscus; the god-like
gift of reason is the instinct of a dog somewhat highly developed.
Still you left us something to hope. Still you allowed us one boast.
Still life was a thread connecting us with the Giver of Life. But now,
with an impious hand, in blasphemous rage ye have rent asunder that
last frail tie." And so forth.
"Welcome! thrice welcome! this latest and most admirable
development of human wisdom," wrote the sage Jayasthalians against
the sage Gaurians, "which has assigned to man his proper state and
status and station in the magnificent scale of being. We have not
created the facts which we have investigated, and which we now proudly
publish. We have proved materialism to be nature's own system. But our
philosophy of matter cannot overturn any truth, because, if erroneous,
it will necessarily sink into oblivion; if real, it will tend only to
instruct and to enlighten the world. Wise are ye in your generation, O
ye sages of Gaur, yet withal wondrous illogical." And much of this
Concerning all which, mighty king! I, as a Vampire, have only to
remark that those two learned bodies, like your Rajaship's Nine Gems
of Science, were in the habit of talking most about what they least
The four young men applied the whole force of their talents to
mastering the difficulties of the life-giving process; and in due
time, their industry obtained its reward.
Then they determined to return home. As with beating hearts they
approached the old city, their birthplace, and gazed with moistened
eyes upon its tall spires and grim pagodas, its verdant meads and
venerable groves, they saw a Kanjar,[FN#142] who, having tied up in a
bundle the skin and bones of a tiger which he had found dead, was
about to go on his way. Then said the thief to the gambler, "Take we
these remains with us, and by means of them prove the truth of our
science before the people of Gaur, to the offence of their
noses.[FN#143]" Being now possessed of knowledge, they resolved to
apply it to its proper purpose, namely, power over the property of
others. Accordingly, the wencher, the gambler, and the atheist kept
the Kanjar in conversation whilst the thief vivified a shank bone; and
the bone thereupon stood upright, and hopped about in so grotesque and
wonderful a way that the man, being frightened, fled as if I had been
close behind him.
Vishnu Swami had lately written a very learned commentary on the
mystical words of Lokakshi:
"The Scriptures are at variance—the tradition is at variance. He
who gives a meaning of his own, quoting the Vedas, is no philosopher.
"True philosophy, through ignorance, is concealed as in the
fissures of a rock.
"But the way of the Great One—that is to be followed."
And the success of his book had quite effaced from the Brahman
mind the holy man's failure in bringing up his children. He followed
up this by adding to his essay on education a twentieth tome,
containing recipes for the "Reformation of Prodigals."
The learned and reverend father received his sons with open arms.
He had heard from his brother-in-law that the youths were qualified
to support themselves, and when informed that they wished to make a
public experiment of their science, he exerted himself, despite his
disbelief in it, to forward their views.
The Pandits and Gurus were long before they would consent to
attend what they considered dealings with Yama (the Devil). In
consequence, however, of Vishnu Swami's name and importunity, at
length, on a certain day, all the pious, learned, and reverend tutors,
teachers, professors, prolocutors, pastors, spiritual fathers, poets,
philosophers, mathematicians, schoolmasters, pedagogues, bear-leaders,
institutors, gerund-grinders, preceptors, dominies, brushers,
coryphaei, dry-nurses, coaches, mentors, monitors, lecturers,
prelectors, fellows, and heads of houses at the university at Gaur,
met together in a large garden, where they usually diverted themselves
out of hours with ball-tossing, pigeon-tumbling, and kite-flying.
Presently the four young men, carrying their bundle of bones and
the other requisites, stepped forward, walking slowly with eyes
downcast, like shrinking cattle: for it is said, the Brahman must not
run, even when it rains.
After pronouncing an impromptu speech, composed for them by their
father, and so stuffed with erudition that even the writer hardly
understood it, they announced their wish to prove, by ocular
demonstration, the truth of a science upon which their short-sighted
rivals of Jayasthal had cast cold water, but which, they remarked in
the eloquent peroration of their discourse, the sages of Gaur had
welcomed with that wise and catholic spirit of inquiry which had ever
characterized their distinguished body.
Huge words, involved sentences, and the high-flown compliment,
exceedingly undeserved, obscured, I suppose, the bright wits of the
intellectual convocation, which really began to think that their
liberality of opinion deserved all praise.
None objected to what was being prepared, except one of the heads
of houses; his appeal was generally scouted, because his Sanskrit
style was vulgarly intelligible, and he had the bad name of being a
practical man. The metaphysician Rashik Lall sneered to Vaiswata the
poet, who passed on the look to the theo-philosopher Vardhaman.
Haridatt the antiquarian whispered the metaphysician Vasudeva, who
burst into a loud laugh; whilst Narayan, Jagasharma, and Devaswami,
all very learned in the Vedas, opened their eyes and stared at him
with well-simulated astonishment. So he, being offended, said nothing
more, but arose and walked home.
A great crowd gathered round the four young men and their father,
as opening the bundle that contained the tiger's remains, they
prepared for their task.
One of the operators spread the bones upon the ground and fixed
each one into its proper socket, not forgetting even the teeth and
The second connected, by means of a marvellous unguent, the
skeleton with the muscles and heart of an elephant, which he had
procured for the purpose.
The third drew from his pouch the brain and eyes of a large
tom-cat, which he carefully fitted into the animal's skull, and then
covered the body with the hide of a young rhinoceros.
Then the fourth—the atheist—who had been directing the operation,
produced a globule having another globule within itself. And as the
crowd pressed on them, craning their necks, breathless with anxiety,
he placed the Principle of Organic Life in the tiger's body with such
effect that the monster immediately heaved its chest, breathed,
agitated its limbs, opened its eyes, jumped to its feet, shook itself,
glared around, and began to gnash its teeth and lick its chops,
lashing the while its ribs with its tail.
The sages sprang back, and the beast sprang forward. With a roar
like thunder during Elephanta-time,[FN#144] it flew at the nearest of
the spectators, flung Vishnu Swami to the ground and clawed his four
sons. Then, not even stopping to drink their blood, it hurried after
the flying herd of wise men. Jostling and tumbling, stumbling and
catching at one another's long robes, they rushed in hottest haste
towards the garden gate. But the beast, having the muscles of an
elephant as well as the bones of a tiger, made a few bounds of eighty
or ninety feet each, easily distanced them, and took away all chance
of escape. To be brief: as the monster was frightfully hungry after
its long fast, and as the imprudent young men had furnished it with
admirable implements of destruction, it did not cease its work till
one hundred and twenty-one learned and highly distinguished Pandits
and Gurus lay upon the ground chawed, clawed, sucked dry, and in most
cases stone-dead. Amongst them, I need hardly say, were the sage
Vishnu Swami and his four sons.
Having told this story the Vampire hung silent for a time.
Presently he resumed—
"Now, heed my words, Raja Vikram! I am about to ask thee, Which of
all those learned men was the most finished fool? The answer is easily
found, yet it must be distasteful to thee. Therefore mortify thy
vanity, as soon as possible, or I shall be talking, and thou wilt be
walking through this livelong night, to scanty purpose. Remember!
science without understanding is of little use; indeed, understanding
is superior to science, and those devoid of understanding perish as
did the persons who revivified the tiger. Before this, I warned thee
to beware of thyself, and of shine own conceit. Here, then, is an
opportunity for self-discipline—which of all those learned men was
the greatest fool?"
The warrior king mistook the kind of mortification imposed upon
him, and pondered over the uncomfortable nature of the reply—in the
presence of his son.
Again the Baital taunted him.
"The greatest fool of all," at last said Vikram, in slow and by no
means willing accents, "was the father. Is it not said, 'There is no
fool like an old fool'?"
"Gramercy!" cried the Vampire, bursting out into a discordant
laugh, "I now return to my tree. By this head! I never before heard a
father so readily condemn a father." With these words he disappeared,
slipping out of the bundle.
The Raja scolded his son a little for want of obedience, and said
that he had always thought more highly of his acuteness—never could
have believed that he would have been taken in by so shallow a trick.
Dharma Dhwaj answered not a word to this, but promised to be wiser
Then they returned to the tree, and did what they had so often done
And, as before, the Baital held his tongue for a time. Presently he
began as follows.
The lady Chandraprabha, daughter of the Raja Subichar, was a
particularly beautiful girl, and marriage-able withal. One day as
Vasanta, the Spring, began to assert its reign over the world,
animate and inanimate, she went accompanied by her young friends and
companions to stroll about her father's pleasure-garden.
The fair troop wandered through sombre groves, where the dark
tamale-tree entwined its branches with the pale green foliage of the
nim, and the pippal's domes of quivering leaves contrasted with the
columnar aisles of the banyan fig. They admired the old monarchs of
the forest, bearded to the waist with hangings of moss, the flowing
creepers delicately climbing from the lower branches to the topmost
shoots, and the cordage of llianas stretching from trunk to trunk like
bridges for the monkeys to pass over. Then they issued into a clear
space dotted with asokas bearing rich crimson fiowers, cliterias of
azure blue, madhavis exhibiting petals virgin white as the snows on
Himalaya, and jasmines raining showers of perfumed blossoms upon the
grateful earth. They could not sufficiently praise the tall and
graceful stem of the arrowy areca, contrasting with the solid pyramid
of the cypress, and the more masculine stature of the palm. Now they
lingered in the trellised walks closely covered over with vines and
creepers; then they stopped to gather the golden bloom weighing down
the mango boughs, and to smell the highly-scented flowers that hung
from the green fretwork of the chambela.
It was spring, I have said. The air was still except when broken by
the hum of the large black bramra bee, as he plied his task amidst
the red and orange flowers of the dak, and by the gushings of many
waters that made music as they coursed down their stuccoed channels
between borders of many coloured poppies and beds of various flowers.
From time to time the dulcet note of the kokila bird, and the hoarse
plaint of the turtle-dove deep hid in her leafy bower, attracted every
ear and thrilled every heart. The south wind—"breeze of the
south,[FN#145] the friend of love and spring" blew with a voluptuous
warmth, for rain clouds canopied the earth, and the breath of the
narcissus, the rose, and the citron, teemed with a languid fragrance.
The charms of the season affected all the damsels. They amused
themselves in their privacy with pelting blossoms at one another,
running races down the smooth broad alleys, mounting the silken
swings that hung between the orange trees, embracing one another, and
at times trying to push the butt of the party into the fishpond.
Perhaps the liveliest of all was the lady Chandraprabha, who on
account of her rank could pelt and push all the others, without fear
of being pelted and pushed in return.
It so happened, before the attendants had had time to secure
privacy for the princess and her women, that Manaswi, a very handsome
youth, a Brahman's son, had wandered without malicious intention into
the garden. Fatigued with walking, and finding a cool shady place
beneath a tree, he had lain down there, and had gone to sleep, and had
not been observed by any of the king's people. He was still sleeping
when the princess and her companions were playing together.
Presently Chandraprabha, weary of sport, left her friends, and
singing a lively air, tripped up the stairs leading to the
summer-house. Aroused by the sound of her advancing footsteps,
Manaswi sat up; and the princess, seeing a strange man, started. But
their eyes had met, and both were subdued by love—love vulgarly
called "love at first sight."
"Nonsense!" exclaimed the warrior king, testily, "I can never
believe in that freak of Kama Deva." He spoke feelingly, for the
thing had happened to himself more than once, and on no occasion had
it turned out well.
"But there is such a thing, O Raja, as love at first sight,"
objected the Baital, speaking dogmatically.
"Then perhaps thou canst account for it, dead one," growled the
"I have no reason to do so, O Vikram," retorted the Vampire, "when
you men have already done it. Listen, then, to the words of the wise.
In the olden time, one of your great philosophers invented a fluid
pervading all matter, strongly self-repulsive like the steam of a
brass pot, and widely spreading like the breath of scandal. The
repulsiveness, however, according to that wise man, is greatly
modified by its second property, namely, an energetic attraction or
adhesion to all material bodies. Thus every substance contains a part,
more or less, of this fluid, pervading it throughout, and strongly
bound to each component atom. He called it 'Ambericity,' for the best
of reasons, as it has no connection with amber, and he described it as
an imponderable, which, meaning that it could not be weighed, gives a
very accurate and satisfactory idea of its nature.
"Now, said that philosopher, whenever two bodies containing that
unweighable substance in unequal proportions happen to meet, a
current of imponderable passes from one to the other, producing a
kind of attraction, and tending to adhere. The operation takes place
instantaneously when the force is strong and much condensed. Thus the
vulgar who call things after their effects and not from their causes,
term the action of this imponderable love at first sight; the wise
define it to be a phenomenon of ambericity. As regards my own opinion
about the matter, I have long ago told it to you, O Vikram!
"Either hold your tongue, fellow, or go on with your story," cried
the Raja, wearied out by so many words that had no manner of sense.
Well! the effect of the first glance was that Manaswi, the
Brahman's son, fell back in a swoon and remained senseless upon the
ground where he had been sitting; and the Raja's daughter began to
tremble upon her feet, and presently dropped unconscious upon the
floor of the summer-house. Shortly after this she was found by her
companions and attendants, who, quickly taking her up in their arms
and supporting her into a litter, conveyed her home.
Manaswi, the Brahman's son, was so completely overcome, that he
lay there dead to everything. Just then the learned, deeply read, and
purblind Pandits Muldev and Shashi by name, strayed into the garden,
and stumbled upon the body.
"Friend," said Muldev, "how came this youth thus to fall senseless
on the ground?"
"Man," replied Shashi, "doubtless some damsel has shot forth the
arrows of her glances from the bow of her eyebrows, and thence he has
"We must lift him up then," said Muldev the benevolent.
"What need is there to raise him?" asked Shashi the misanthrope by
way of reply.
Muldev, however, would not listen to these words. He ran to the
pond hard by, soaked the end of his waistcloth in water, sprinkled it
over the young Brahman, raised him from the ground, and placed him
sitting against the wall. And perceiving, when he came to himself,
that his sickness was rather of the soul than of the body, the old men
asked him how he came to be in that plight.
"We should tell our griefs," answered Manaswi, "only to those who
will relieve us! What is the use of communicating them to those who,
when they have heard, cannot help us? What is to be gained by the
empty pity or by the useless condolence of men in general?"
The Pandits, however, by friendly looks and words, presently
persuaded him to break silence, when he said, "A certain princess
entered this summer-house, and from the sight of her I have fallen
into this state. If I can obtain her, I shall live; if not, I must
"Come with me, young man!" said Muldev the benevolent: "I will use
every endeavour to obtain her, and if I do not succeed I will make
thee wealthy and independent of the world."
Manaswi rejoined: "The Deity in his beneficence has created many
jewels in this world, but the pearl, woman, is chiefest of all; and
for her sake only does man desire wealth. What are riches to one who
has abandoned his wife? What are they who do not possess beautiful
wives? they are but beings inferior to the beasts! wealth is the fruit
of virtue; ease, of wealth; a wife, of ease. And where no wife is, how
can there be happiness?" And the enamoured youth rambled on in this
way, curious to us, Raja Vikram, but perhaps natural enough in a
Brahman's son suffering under that endemic malady—determination to
"Whatever thou mayest desire," said Muldev, "shall by the blessing
of heaven be given to thee."
Manaswi implored him, saying most pathetically, ''O Pandit, bestow
then that damsel upon me!"
Muldev promised to do so, and having comforted the youth, led him
to his own house. Then he welcomed him politely, seated him upon the
carpet, and left him for a few minutes, promising him to return. When
he reappeared, he held in his hand two little balls or pills, and
showing them to Manaswi, he explained their virtues as follows:
"There is in our house an hereditary secret, by means of which I
try to promote the weal of humanity. But in all cases my success
depends mainly upon the purity and the hear/wholeness of those that
seek my aid. If thou place this in thy mouth, thou shalt be changed
into a damsel twelve years old, and when thou withdrawest it again,
thou shalt again recover shine original form. Beware, however, that
thou use the power for none but a good purpose; otherwise some great
calamity will befall thee. Therefore, take counsel of thyself before
undertaking this trial!"
What lover, O warrior king Vikram, would have hesitated, under
such circumstances, to assure the Pandit that he was the most
innocent, earnest, and well-intentioned being in the Three Worlds?
The Brahman's son, at least, lost no time in so doing. Hence the
simple-minded philosopher put one of the pills into the young man's
mouth, warning him on no account to swallow it, and took the other
into his own mouth. Upon which Manaswi became a sprightly young maid,
and Muldev was changed to a reverend and decrepid senior, not fewer
than eighty years old.
Thus transformed, the twain walked up to the palace of the Raja
Subichar, and stood for a while to admire the gate. Then passing
through seven courts, beautiful as the Paradise of Indra, they
entered, unannounced, as became the priestly dignity, a hall where,
surrounded by his courtiers, sat the ruler. The latter, seeing the
Holy Brahman under his roof, rose up, made the customary humble
salutation, and taking their right hands, led what appeared to be the
father and daughter to appropriate seats. Upon which Muldev, having
recited a verse, bestowed upon the Raja a blessing whose beauty has
been diffused over all creation.
"May that Deity[FN#146] who as a mannikin deceived the great king
Bali; who as a hero, with a monkey-host, bridged the Salt Sea; who as
a shepherd lifted up the mountain Gobarddhan in the palm of his hand,
and by it saved the cowherds and cowherdesses from the thunders of
heaven—may that Deity be thy protector!"
Having heard and marvelled at this display of eloquence, the Raja
inquired, "Whence hath your holiness come?"
"My country," replied Muldev, "is on the northern side of the great
mother Ganges, and there too my dwelling is. I travelled to a distant
land, and having found in this maiden a worthy wife for my son, I
straightway returned homewards. Meanwhile a famine had laid waste our
village, and my wife and my son have fled I know not where. Encumbered
with this damsel, how can I wander about seeking them? Hearing the
name of a pious and generous ruler, I said to myself, ' I will leave
her under his charge until my return.' Be pleased to take great care
For a minute the Raja sat thoughtful and silent. He was highly
pleased with the Brahman's perfect compliment. But he could not hide
from himself that he was placed between two difficulties: one, the
charge of a beautiful young girl, with pouting lips, soft speech, and
roguish eyes; the other, a priestly curse upon himself and his
kingdom. He thought, however, refusal the more dangerous; so he
raised his face and exclaimed, "O produce of Brahma's head,[FN#147] I
will do what your highness has desired of me."
Upon which the Brahman, after delivering a benediction of adieu
almost as beautiful and spirit-stirring as that with which he had
presented himself, took the betel[FN#148] and went his ways.
Then the Raja sent for his daughter Chandraprabha and said to her,
"This is the affianced bride of a young Brahman, and she has been
trusted to my protection for a time by her father-in-law. Take her
therefore into the inner rooms, treat her with the utmost regard, and
never allow her to be separated from thee, day or night, asleep or
awake, eating or drinking, at home or abroad."
Chandraprabha took the hand of Sita—as Manaswi had pleased to
call himself—and led the way to her own apartment. Once the seat of
joy and pleasure, the rooms now wore a desolate and melancholy look.
The windows were darkened, the attendants moved noiselessly over the
carpets, as if their footsteps would cause headache, and there was a
faint scent of some drug much used in cases of deliquium. The
apartments were handsome, but the only ornament in the room where they
sat was a large bunch of withered flowers in an arched recess, and
these, though possibly interesting to some one, were not likely to
find favour as a decoration in the eyes of everybody.
The Raja's daughter paid the greatest attention and talked with
unusual vivacity to the Brahman's daughter-in-law, either because she
had roguish eyes, or from some presentiment of what was to occur,
whichever you please, Raja Vikram, and it is no matter which. Still
Sita could not help perceiving that there was a shade of sorrow upon
the forehead of her fair new friend, and so when they retired to rest
she asked the cause of it.
Then Chandraprabha related to her the sad tale: "One day in the
spring season, as I was strolling in the garden along with my
companions, I beheld a very handsome Brahman, and our eyes having
met, he became unconscious, and I also was insensible. My companions
seeing my condition, brought me home, and therefore I know neither his
name nor his abode. His beautiful form is impressed upon my memory. I
have now no desire to eat or to drink, and from this distress my
colour has become pale and my body is thus emaciated." And the
beautiful princess sighed a sigh that was musical and melancholy, and
concluded by predicting for herself—as persons similarly placed often
do—a sudden and untimely end about the beginning of the next month.
"What wilt thou give me," asked the Brahman's daughter-in-law
demurely, "if I show thee thy beloved at this very moment?"
The Raja's daughter answered, "I will ever be the lowest of thy
slaves, standing before thee with joined hands."
Upon which Sita removed the pill from her mouth, and instantly
having become Manaswi, put it carefully away in a little bag hung
round his neck. At this sight Chandraprabha felt abashed, and hung
down her head in beautiful confusion. To describe—
"I will have no descriptions, Vampire!" cried the great Vikram,
jerking the bag up and down as if he were sweating gold in it. "The
fewer of thy descriptions the better for us all."
Briefly (resumed the demon), Manaswi reflected upon the eight
forms of marriage—viz., Bramhalagan, when a girl is given to a
Brahman, or man of superior caste, without reward; Daiva, when she is
presented as a gift or fee to the officiating priest at the close of a
sacrifice; Arsha, when two cows are received by the girl's father in
exchange for the bride[FN#149]; Prajapatya, when the girl is given at
the request of a Brahman, and the father says to his daughter and her
to betrothed, "Go, fulfil the duties of religion"; Asura, when money
is received by the father in exchange for the bride; Rakshasha, when
she is captured in war, or when her bridegroom overcomes his rival;
Paisacha, when the girl is taken away from her father's house by
craft; and eighthly, Gandharva-lagan, or the marriage that takes place
by mutual consent.[FN#150]
Manaswi preferred the latter, especially as by her rank and age the
princess was entitled to call upon her father for the Lakshmi
Swayambara wedding, in which she would have chosen her own husband.
And thus it is that Rama, Arjuna, Krishna, Nala, and others, were
proposed to by the princesses whom they married.
For five months after these nuptials, Manaswi never stirred out of
the palace, but remained there by day a woman, and a man by night.
The consequence was that he—I call him "he," for whether Manaswi or
Sita, his mind ever remained masculine—presently found himself in a
fair way to become a father.
Now, one would imagine that a change of sex every twenty-four
hours would be variety enough to satisfy even a man. Manaswi,
however, was not contented. He began to pine for more liberty, and to
find fault with his wife for not taking him out into the world. And
you might have supposed that a young person who, from love at first
sight, had fallen senseless upon the steps of a summer-house, and who
had devoted herself to a sudden and untimely end because she was
separated from her lover, would have repressed her yawns and little
irritable words even for a year after having converted him into a
husband. But no! Chandraprabha soon felt as tired of seeing Manaswi
and nothing but Manaswi, as Manaswi was weary of seeing Chandraprabha
and nothing but Chandraprabha. Often she had been on the point of
proposing visits and out-of-door excursions. But when at last the idea
was first suggested by her husband, she at once became an injured
woman. She hinted how foolish it was for married people to imprison
themselves and to quarrel all day. When Manaswi remonstrated, saying
that he wanted nothing better than to appear before the world with her
as his wife, but that he really did not know what her father might do
to him, she threw out a cutting sarcasm upon his effeminate appearance
during the hours of light. She then told him of an unfortunate young
woman in an old nursery tale who had unconsciously married a fiend
that became a fine handsome man at night when no eye could see him,
and utter ugliness by day when good looks show to advantage. And
lastly, when inveighing against the changeableness, fickleness, and
infidelity of mankind, she quoted the words of the poet—
Out upon change! it tires the heart
And weighs the noble spirit down;
A vain, vain world indeed thou art
That can such vile condition own
The veil hath fallen from my eyes,
I cannot love where I despise....
You can easily, O King Vikram, continue for yourself and conclude
this lecture, which I leave unfinished on account of its length.
Chandraprabha and Sita, who called each other the Zodiacal Twins
and Laughter Light,[FN#151] and All-consenters, easily persuaded the
old Raja that their health would be further improved by air, exercise,
and distractions. Subichar, being delighted with the change that had
taken place in a daughter whom he loved, and whom he had feared to
lose, told them to do as they pleased. They began a new life, in which
short trips and visits, baths and dances, music parties, drives in
bullock chariots, and water excursions succeeded one another.
It so happened that one day the Raja went with his whole family to
a wedding feast in the house of his grand treasurer, where the
latter's son saw Manaswi in the beautiful shape of Sita. This was a
third case of love at first sight, for the young man immediately said
to a particular friend, "If I obtain that girl, I shall live; if not,
I shall abandon life."
In the meantime the king. having enjoyed the feast, came back to
his palace with his whole family. The condition of the treasurer's
son, however, became very distressing; and through separation from
his beloved, he gave up eating and drinking. The particular friend had
kept the secret for some days, though burning to tell it. At length he
found an excuse for himself in the sad state of his friend, and he
immediately went and divulged all that he knew to the treasurer. After
this he felt relieved.
The minister repaired to the court, and laid his case before the
king, saying, "Great Raja! through the love of that Brahman's
daughter-in-law, my son's state is very bad; he has given up eating
and drinking; in fact he is consumed by the fire of separation. If
now your majesty could show compassion, and bestow the girl upon him,
his life would be saved. If not——"
"Fool!" cried the Raja, who, hearing these words, had waxed very
wroth; "it is not right for kings to do injustice. Listen! when a
person puts any one in charge of a protector, how can the latter give
away his trust without consulting the person that trusted him? And yet
this is what you wish me to do."
The treasurer knew that the Raja could not govern his realm
without him, and he was well acquainted with his master's character.
He said to himself, "This will not last long;" but he remained dumb,
simulating hopelessness, and hanging down his head, whilst Subichar
alternately scolded and coaxed, abused and flattered him, in order to
open his lips. Then, with tears in his eyes, he muttered a request to
take leave; and as he passed through the palace gates, he said aloud,
with a resolute air, "It will cost me but ten days of fasting!"
The treasurer, having returned home, collected all his attendants,
and went straightway to his son's room. Seeing the youth still
stretched upon his sleeping-mat, and very yellow for the want of
food. he took his hand, and said in a whisper, meant to be audible,
"Alas! poor son, I can do nothing but perish with thee."
The servants, hearing this threat, slipped one by one out of the
room, and each went to tell his friend that the grand treasurer had
resolved to live no longer. After which, they went back to the house
to see if their master intended to keep his word, and curious to know,
if he did intend to die, how, where, and when it was to be. And they
were not disappointed: I do not mean that the wished their lord to
die, as he was a good master to them but still there was an excitement
in the thing——
(Raja Vikram could not refrain from showing his anger at the
insult thus cast by the Baital upon human nature; the wretch,
however, pretending not to notice it, went on without interrupting
——which somehow or other pleased them.
When the treasurer had spent three days without touching bread or
water, all the cabinet council met and determined to retire from
business unless the Raja yielded to their solicitations. The treasurer
was their working man. "Besides which," said the cabinet council, "if
a certain person gets into the habit of refusing us, what is to be the
end of it, and what is the use of being cabinet councillors any
Early on the next morning, the ministers went in a body before the
Raja, and humbly represented that "the treasurer's son is at the
point of death, the effect of a full heart and an empty stomach.
Should he die, the father, who has not eaten or drunk during the last
three days" (the Raja trembled to hear the intelligence, though he
knew it), "his father, we say, cannot be saved. If the father dies the
affairs of the kingdom come to ruin,—is he not the grand treasurer?
It is already said that half the accounts have been gnawed by white
ants, and that some pernicious substance in the ink has eaten jagged
holes through the paper, so that the other half of the accounts is
illegible. It were best, sire, that you agree to what we represent."
The white ants and corrosive ink were too strong for the Raja's
determination. Still, wishing to save appearances, he replied, with
much firmness, that he knew the value of the treasurer and his son,
that he would do much to save them, but that he had passed his royal
word, and had undertaken a trust. That he would rather die a dozen
deaths than break his promise, or not discharge his duty faithfully.
That man's condition in this world is to depart from it, none
remaining in it; that one comes and that one goes, none knowing when
or where; but that eternity is eternity for happiness or misery. And
much of the same nature, not very novel, and not perhaps quite to the
purpose, but edifying to those who knew what lay behind the speaker's
The ministers did not know their lord's character so well as the
grand treasurer, and they were more impressed by his firm demeanour
and the number of his words than he wished them to be. After allowing
his speech to settle in their minds, he did away with a great part of
its effect by declaring that such were the sentiments and the
principles—when a man talks of his principles, O Vikram! ask thyself
the reason why—instilled into his youthful mind by the most
honourable of fathers and the most virtuous of mothers. At the same
time that he was by no means obstinate or proof against conviction. In
token whereof he graciously permitted the councillors to convince him
that it was his royal duty to break his word and betray his trust, and
to give away another man's wife.
Pray do not lose your temper, O warrior king! Subichar, although a
Raja, was a weak man; and you know, or you ought to know, that the
wicked may be wise in their generation, but the weak never can.
Well, the ministers hearing their lord's last words, took courage,
and proceeded to work upon his mind by the figure of speech popularly
called "rigmarole." They said: "Great king! that old Brahman has been
gone many days, and has not returned; he is probably dead and burnt.
It is therefore right that by giving to the grand treasurer's son his
daughter-in-law, who is only affianced, not fairly married, you should
establish your government firmly. And even if he should return, bestow
villages and wealth upon him; and if he be not then content, provide
another and a more beautiful wife for his son, and dismiss him. A
person should be sacrificed for the sake of a family, a family for a
city, a city for a country, and a country for a king!"
Subichar having heard them, dismissed them with the remark that as
so much was to be said on both sides, he must employ the night in
thinking over the matter, and that he would on the next day favour
them with his decision. The cabinet councillors knew by this that he
meant that he would go and consult his wives. They retired contented,
convinced that every voice would be in favour of a wedding, and that
the young girl, with so good an offer, would not sacrifice the present
to the future.
That evening the treasurer and his son supped together.
The first words uttered by Raja Subichar, when he entered his
daughter's apartment, were an order addressed to Sita: "Go thou at
once to the house of my treasurer's son."
Now, as Chandraprabha and Manaswi were generally scolding each
other, Chandraprabha and Sita were hardly on speaking terms. When they
heard the Raja's order for their separation they were—
—"Delighted?" cried Dharma Dhwaj, who for some reason took the
greatest interest in the narrative.
"Overwhelmed with grief, thou most guileless Yuva Raja (young
prince)!" ejaculated the Vampire.
Raja Vikram reproved his son for talking about thing of which he
knew nothing, and the Baital resumed.
They turned pale and wept, and they wrung their hands, and they
begged and argued and refused obedience. In fact they did everything
to make the king revoke his order.
"The virtue of a woman," quoth Sita, "is destroyed through too
much beauty; the religion of a Brahman is impaired by serving kings;
a cow is spoiled by distant pasturage, wealth is lost by committing
injustice, and prosperity departs from the house where promises are
The Raja highly applauded the sentiment, but was firm as a rock
upon the subject of Sita marrying the treasurer's son.
Chandraprabha observed that her royal father, usually so
conscientious, must now be acting from interested motives, and that
when selfishness sways a man, right becomes left and left becomes
right, as in the reflection of a mirror.
Subichar approved of the comparison; he was not quite so resolved,
but he showed no symptoms of changing his mind.
Then the Brahman's daughter-in-law, with the view of gaining
time—a famous stratagem amongst feminines—said to the Raja: "Great
king, if you are determined upon giving me to the grand treasurer's
son, exact from him the promise that he will do what I bid him. Only
on this condition will I ever enter his house!"
"Speak, then," asked the king; "what will he have to do?"
She replied, "I am of the Brahman or priestly caste, he is the son
of a Kshatriya or warrior: the law directs that before we twain can
wed, he should perform Yatra (pilgrimage) to all the holy places."
"Thou hast spoken Veda-truth, girl," answered the Raja, not sorry
to have found so good a pretext for temporizing, and at the same time
to preserve his character for firmness, resolution, determination.
That night Manaswi and Chandraprabha, instead of scolding each
other, congratulated themselves upon having escaped an imminent
danger—which they did not escape.
In the morning Subichar sent for his ministers, including his grand
treasurer and his love-sick son, and told them how well and wisely
the Brahman's daughter-in-law had spoken upon the subject of the
marriage. All of them approved of the condition; but the young man
ventured to suggest, that while he was a-pilgrimaging the maiden
should reside under his father's roof. As he and his father showed a
disposition to continue their fasts in case of the small favour not
being granted, the Raja, though very loath to separate his beloved
daughter and her dear friend, was driven to do it. And Sita was
carried off, weeping bitterly, to the treasurer's palace. That
dignitary solemnly committed her to the charge of his third and
youngest wife, the lady Subhagya-Sundari, who was about her own age,
and said, "You must both live together, without any kind of wrangling
or contention, and do not go into other people's houses." And the
grand treasurer's son went off to perform his pilgrimages.
It is no less sad than true, Raja Vikram, that in less than six
days the disconsolate Sita waxed weary of being Sita, took the ball
out of her mouth, and became Manaswi. Alas for the infidelity of
mankind! But it is gratifying to reflect that he met with the
punishment with which the Pandit Muldev had threatened him. One night
the magic pill slipped down his throat. When morning dawned, being
unable to change himself into Sita, Manaswi was obliged to escape
through a window from the lady Subhagya-Sundari's room. He sprained
his ankle with the leap, and he lay for a time upon the ground—where
I leave him whilst convenient to me.
When Muldev quitted the presence of Subichar, he resumed his old
shape, and returning to his brother Pandit Shashi, told him what he
had done. Whereupon Shashi, the misanthrope, looked black, and used
hard words and told his friend that good nature and soft-heartedness
had caused him to commit a very bad action—a grievous sin. Incensed
at this charge, the philanthropic Muldev became angry, and said, "I
have warned the youth about his purity; what harm can come of it?"
"Thou hast," retorted Shashi, with irritating coolness, "placed a
sharp weapon in a fool's hand."
"I have not," cried Muldev, indignantly.
"Therefore," drawled the malevolent, "you are answerable for all
the mischief he does with it, and mischief assuredly he will do."
"He will not, by Brahma!" exclaimed Muldev.
"He will, by Vishnu!" said Shashi, with an amiability produced by
having completely upset his friend's temper; "and if within the
coming six months he does not disgrace himself, thou shalt have the
whole of my book-case; but if he does, the philanthropic Muldev will
use all his skill and ingenuity in procuring the daughter of Raja
Subichar as a wife for his faithful friend Shashi."
Having made this covenant, they both agreed not to speak of the
matter till the autumn.
The appointed time drawing near, the Pandits began to make
inquiries about the effect of the magic pills. Presently they found
out that Sita, alias Manaswi, had one night mysteriously disappeared
from the grand treasurer's house, and had not been heard of since that
time. This, together with certain other things that transpired
presently, convinced Muldev, who had cooled down in six months, that
his friend had won the wager. He prepared to make honourable payment
by handing a pill to old Shashi, who at once became a stout, handsome
young Brahman, some twenty years old. Next putting a pill into his own
mouth, he resumed the shape and form under which he had first appeared
before Raja Subichar; and, leaning upon his staff, he led the way to
The king, in great confusion, at once recognized the old priest,
and guessed the errand upon which he and the youth were come.
However, he saluted them, and offered them seats, and receiving their
blessings, he began to make inquiries about their health and welfare.
At last he mustered courage to ask the old Brahman where he had been
living for so long a time.
"Great king," replied the priest, "I went to seek after my son, and
having found him, I bring him to your majesty. Give him his wife, and
I will take them both home with me.''
Raja Subichar prevaricated not a little; but presently, being hard
pushed, he related everything that had happened.
"What is this that you have done?" cried Muldev, simulating
excessive anger and astonishment. "Why have you given my son's wife
in marriage to another man? You have done what you wished, and now,
therefore, receive my Shrap (curse)!"
The poor Raja, in great trepidation, said, "O Vivinity! be not thus
angry! I will do whatever you bid me."
Said Muldev, "If through dread of my excommunication you will
freely give whatever I demand of you, then marry your daughter,
Chandraprabha, to this my son. On this condition I forgive you. To
me, now a necklace of pearls and a venomous krishna (cobra capella);
the most powerful enemy and the kindest friend, the most precious gem
and a clod of earth; the softest bed and the hardest stone; a blade of
grass and the loveliest woman—are precisely the same. All I desire is
that in some holy place, repeating the name of God, I may soon end my
Subichar, terrified by this additional show of sanctity, at once
summoned an astrologer, and fixed upon the auspicious moment and
lunar influence. He did not consult the princess, and had he done so
she would not have resisted his wishes. Chandraprabha had heard of
Sita's escape from the treasurer's house, and she had on the subject
her own suspicions. Besides which she looked forward to a certain
event, and she was by no means sure that her royal father approved of
the Gandharba form of marriage—at least for his daughter. Thus the
Brahman's son receiving in due time the princess and her dowry, took
leave of the king and returned to his own village.
Hardly, however, had Chandraprabha been married to Shashi the
Pandit, when Manaswi went to him, and began to wrangle, and said,
"Give me my wife!" He had recovered from the effects of his fall, and
having lost her he therefore loved her—very dearly.
But Shashi proved by reference to the astrologers, priests, and ten
persons as witnesses, that he had duly wedded her, and brought her to
his home; "therefore," said he, "she is my spouse."
Manaswi swore by all holy things that he had been legally married
to her, and that he was the father of her child that was about to be.
"How then," continued he, "can she be thy spouse?" He would have
summoned Muldev as a witness, but that worthy, after remonstrating
with him, disappeared. He called upon Chandraprabha to confirm his
statement, but she put on an innocent face, and indignantly denied
ever having seen the man.
Still, continued the Baital, many people believed Manaswi's story,
as it was marvellous and incredible. Even to the present day, there
are many who decidedly think him legally married to the daughter of
"Then they are pestilent fellows!" cried the warrior king Vikram,
who hated nothing more than clandestine and runaway matches. "No one
knew that the villain, Manaswi, was the father of her child; whereas,
the Pandit Shashi married her lawfully, before witnesses, and with all
the ceremonies.[FN#152] She therefore remains his wife, and the child
will perform the funeral obsequies for him, and offer water to the
manes of his pitris (ancestors). At least, so say law and justice."
"Which justice is often unjust enough!" cried the Vampire; "and
ply thy legs, mighty Raja; let me see if thou canst reach the
sires-tree before I do."
* * * * * *
"The next story, O Raja Vikram, is remarkably interesting."
Far and wide through the lovely land overrun by the Arya from the
Western Highlands spread the fame of Unmadini, the beautiful daughter
of Haridas the Brahman. In the numberless odes, sonnets, and acrostics
addressed to her by a hundred Pandits and poets her charms were sung
with prodigious triteness. Her presence was compared to light shining
in a dark house; her face to the full moon; her complexion to the
yellow champaka flower; her curls to female snakes; her eyes to those
of the deer; her eyebrows to bent bows; her teeth to strings of little
opals; her feet to rubies and red gems,[FN#153] and her gait to that
of the wild goose. And none forgot to say that her voice affected the
author like the song of the kokila bird, sounding from the shadowy
brake, when the breeze blows coolly, or that the fairy beings of
Indra's heaven would have shrunk away abashed at her loveliness.
But, Raja Vikram! all the poets failed to win the fair Unmadini's
love. To praise the beauty of a beauty is not to praise her. Extol her
wit and talents, which has the zest of novelty, then you may succeed.
For the same reason, read inversely, the plainer and cleverer is the
bosom you would fire, the more personal you must be upon the subject
of its grace and loveliness. Flattery you know, is ever the match
which kindles the Flame of love. True it is that some by roughness of
demeanour and bluntness in speech, contrasting with those whom they
call the "herd," have the art to succeed in the service of the
bodyless god.[FN#154] But even they must—
The young prince Dharma Dhwaj could not help laughing at the
thought of how this must sound in his father's ear. And the Raja
hearing the ill-timed merriment, sternly ordered the Baital to cease
his immoralities and to continue his story.
Thus the lovely Unmadini, conceiving an extreme contempt for poets
and literati, one day told her father who greatly loved her, that her
husband must be a fine young man who never wrote verses. Withal she
insisted strongly on mental qualities and science, being a person of
moderate mind and an adorer of talent— when not perverted to poetry.
As you may imagine, Raja Vikram, all the beauty's bosom friends,
seeing her refuse so many good offers, confidently predicted that she
would pass through the jungle and content herself with a bad stick, or
that she would lead ring-tailed apes in Patala.
At length when some time had elapsed, four suitors appeared from
four different countries, all of them claiming equal excellence in
youth and beauty, strength and understanding. And after paying their
respects to Haridas, and telling him their wishes, they were directed
to come early on the next morning and to enter upon the first
ordeal—an intellectual conversation.
This they did.
"Foolish the man," quoth the young Mahasani, "that seeks
permanence in this world—frail as the stem of the plantain-tree,
transient as the ocean foam.
"All that is high shall presently fall; all that is low must
"Unwillingly do the manes of the dead taste the tears shed by their
kinsmen: then wail not, but perform the funeral obsequies with
"What ill-omened fellow is this?" quoth the fair Unmadini, who was
sitting behind her curtain;" besides, he has dared to quote poetry!
"There was little chance of success for that suitor.
"She is called a good woman, and a woman of pure descent," quoth
the second suitor, "who serves him to whom her father and mother have
given her; and it is written in the scriptures that a woman who in the
lifetime of her husband, becoming a devotee, engages in fasting, and
in austere devotion, shortens his days, and hereafter falls into the
fire. For it is said—
"A woman's bliss is found not in the smile
Of father, mother, friend, nor in herself;
Her husband is her only portion here,
Her heaven hereafter."
The word "serve," which might mean "obey," was peculiarly
disagreeable to the fair one's ears, and she did not admire the check
so soon placed upon her devotion, or the decided language and manner
of the youth. She therefore mentally resolved never again to see that
person, whom she determined to be stupid as an elephant.
"A mother," said Gunakar, the third candidate, "protects her son in
babyhood, and a father when his offspring is growing up. But the man
of warrior descent defends his brethren at all times. Such is the
custom of the world, and such is my state. I dwell on the heads of the
Therefore those assembled together looked with great respect upon
the man of velour.
Devasharma, the fourth suitor, contented himself with listening to
the others, who fancied that he was overawed by their cleverness. And
when it came to his turn he simply remarked, "Silence is better than
speech." Being further pressed, he said, "A wise man will not proclaim
his age, nor a deception practiced upon himself, nor his riches, nor
the loss of riches, nor family faults, nor incantations, nor conjugal
love, nor medicinal prescriptions, nor religious duties, nor gifts,
nor reproach, nor the infidelity of his wife."
Thus ended the first trial. The master of the house dismissed the
two former speakers, with many polite expressions and some trifling
presents. Then having given betel to them, scented their garments with
attar, and sprinkled rose-water over their heads, he accompanied them
to the door, showing much regret. The two latter speakers he begged to
come on the next day.
Gunakar and Devasharma did not fail. When they entered the
assembly-room and took the seats pointed out to them, the father
said, "Be ye pleased to explain and make manifest the effects of your
mental qualities. So shall I judge of them."
"I have made," said Gunakar, "a four-wheeled carriage, in which
the power resides to carry you in a moment wherever you may purpose
"I have such power over the angel of death," said Devasharma,
"that I can at all times raise a corpse, and enable my friends to do
Now tell me by thy brains, O warrior King Vikram, which of these
two youths was the fitter husband for the maid?
Either the Raja could not answer the question, or perhaps he would
not, being determined to break the spell which had already kept him
walking to and fro for so many hours. Then the Baital, who had paused
to let his royal carrier commit himself, seeing that the attempt had
failed, proceeded without making any further comment.
The beautiful Unmadini was brought out, but she hung down her head
and made no reply. Yet she took care to move both her eyes in the
direction of Devasharma. Whereupon Haridas, quoting the proverb that
"pearls string with pearls," formally betrothed to him his daughter.
The soldier suitor twisted the ends of his mustachios into his eyes,
which were red with wrath, and fumbled with his fingers about the
hilt of his sword. But he was a man of noble birth, and presently his
anger passed away.
Mahasani the poet, however, being a shameless person—and when can
we be safe from such?—forced himself into the assembly and began to
rage and to storm, and to quote proverbs in a loud tone of voice. He
remarked that in this world women are a mine of grief, a poisonous
root, the abode of solicitude, the destroyers of resolution, the
occasioners of fascination, and the plunderers of all virtuous
qualities. From the daughter he passed to the father, and after saying
hard things of him as a "Maha-Brahman,"[FN#155] who took cows and gold
and worshipped a monkey, he fell with a sweeping censure upon all
priests and sons of priests, more especially Devasharma. As the
bystanders remonstrated with him, he became more violent, and when
Haridas, who was a weak man, appeared terrified by his voice, look,
and gesture, he swore a solemn oath that despite all the betrothals in
the world, unless Unmadini became his wife he would commit suicide,
and as a demon haunt the house and injure the inmates.
Gunakar the soldier exhorted this shameless poet to slay himself at
once, and to go where he pleased. But as Haridas reproved the warrior
for inhumanity, Mahasani nerved by spite, love, rage, and perversity
to an heroic death, drew a noose from his bosom, rushed out of the
house, and suspended himself to the nearest tree.
And, true enough, as the midnight gong struck, he appeared in the
form of a gigantic and malignant Rakshasa (fiend), dreadfully
frightened the household of Haridas, and carried off the lovely
Unmadini, leaving word that she was to he found on the topmost peak
The unhappy father hastened to the house where Devasharma lived.
There, weeping bitterly and wringing his hands in despair, he told the
terrible tale, and besought his intended son-in-law to be up and
The young Brahman at once sought his late rival, and asked his
aid. This the soldier granted at once, although he had been nettled
at being conquered in love by a priestling.
The carriage was at once made ready, and the suitors set out,
bidding the father be of good cheer, and that before sunset he should
embrace his daughter. They then entered the vehicle; Gunakar with
cabalistic words caused it to rise high in the air, and Devasharma put
to flight the demon by reciting the sacred verse,[FN#156] "Let us
meditate on the supreme splendour (or adorable light) of that Divine
Ruler (the sun) who may illuminate our understandings. Venerable men,
guided by the intelligence, salute the divine sun (Sarvitri) with
oblations and praise. Om!"
Then they returned with the girl to the house, and Haridas blessed
them, praising the sun aloud in the joy of his heart. Lest other
accidents might happen, he chose an auspicious planetary conjunction,
and at a fortunate moment rubbed turmeric upon his daughter's hands.
The wedding was splendid, and broke the hearts of twenty-four
rivals. In due time Devasharma asked leave from his father-in-law to
revisit his home, and to carry with him his bride. This request being
granted, he set out accompanied by Gunakar the soldier, who swore not
to leave the couple before seeing them safe under their own roof-tree.
It so happened that their road lay over the summits of the wild
Vindhya hills, where dangers of all kinds are as thick as shells upon
the shore of the deep. Here were rocks and jagged precipices making
the traveller's brain whirl when he looked into them. There impetuous
torrents roared and flashed down their beds of black stone,
threatening destruction to those who would cross them. Now the path
was lost in the matted thorny underwood and the pitchy shades of the
jungle, deep and dark as the valley of death. Then the thunder-cloud
licked the earth with its fiery tongue, and its voice shook the crags
and filled their hollow caves. At times, the sun was so hot, that wild
birds fell dead from the air. And at every moment the wayfarers heard
the trumpeting of giant elephants, the fierce howling of the tiger,
the grisly laugh of the foul hyaena, and the whimpering of the wild
dogs as they coursed by on the tracks of their prey.
Yet, sustained by the five-armed god[FN#157] the little party
passed safely through all these dangers. They had almost emerged from
the damp glooms of the forest into the open plains which skirt the
southern base of the hills, when one night the fair Unmadini saw a
She beheld herself wading through a sluggish pool of muddy water,
which rippled, curdling as she stepped into it, and which, as she
advanced, darkened with the slime raised by her feet. She was bearing
in her arms the semblance of a sick child, which struggled
convulsively and filled the air with dismal wails. These cries seemed
to be answered by a multitude of other children, some bloated like
toads, others mere skeletons lying upon the bank, or floating upon the
thick brown waters of the pond. And all seemed to address their cries
to her, as if she were the cause of their weeping; nor could all her
efforts quiet or console them for a moment.
When the bride awoke, she related all the particulars of her
ill-omened vision to her husband; and the latter, after a short
pause, informed her and his friend that a terrible calamity was about
to befall them. He then drew from his travelling wallet a skein of
thread. This he divided into three parts, one for each, and told his
companions that in case of grievous bodily injury, the bit of thread
wound round the wounded part would instantly make it whole. After
which he taught them the Mantra,[FN#158] or mystical word by which the
lives of men are restored to their bodies, even when they have taken
their allotted places amongst the stars, and which for evident reasons
I do not want to repeat. It concluded, however, with the three
Vyahritis, or sacred syllables— Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svar!
Raja Vikram was perhaps a little disappointed by this declaration.
He made no remark, however, and the Baital thus pursued:
As Devasharma foretold, an accident of a terrible nature did occur.
On the evening of that day, as they emerged upon the plain, they were
attacked by the Kiratas, or savage tribes of the mountain.[FN#159] A
small, black, wiry figure, armed with a bow and little cane arrows,
stood in their way, signifying by gestures that they must halt and lay
down their arms. As they continued to advance, he began to speak with
a shrill chattering, like the note of an affrighted bird, his restless
red eyes glared with rage, and he waved his weapon furiously round his
head. Then from the rocks and thickets on both sides of the path
poured a shower of shafts upon the three strangers.
The unequal combat did not last long. Gunakar, the soldier,
wielded his strong right arm with fatal effect and struck down some
threescore of the foes. But new swarms came on like angry hornets
buzzing round the destroyer of their nests. And when he fell,
Devasharma, who had left him for a moment to hide his beautiful wife
in the hollow of a tree, returned, and stood fighting over the body of
his friend till he also, overpowered by numbers, was thrown to the
ground. Then the wild men, drawing their knives, cut off the heads of
their helpless enemies, stripped their bodies of all their ornaments,
and departed, leaving the woman unharmed for good luck.
When Unmadini, who had been more dead than alive during the
affray, found silence succeed to the horrid din of shrieks and
shouts, she ventured to creep out of her refuge in the hollow tree.
And what does she behold? her husband and his friend are lying upon
the ground, with their heads at a short distance from their bodies.
She sat down and wept bitterly.
Presently, remembering the lesson which she had learned that very
morning, she drew forth from her bosom the bit of thread and
proceeded to use it. She approached the heads to the bodies, and tied
some of the magic string round each neck. But the shades of evening
were fast deepening, and in her agitation, confusion and terror, she
made a curious mistake by applying the heads to the wrong trunks.
After which, she again sat down, and having recited her prayers, she
pronounced, as her husband had taught her, the life-giving
In a moment the dead men were made alive. They opened their eyes,
shook themselves, sat up and handled their limbs as if to feel that
all was right. But something or other appeared to them all wrong. They
placed their palms upon their foreheads, and looked downwards, and
started to their feet and began to stare at their hands and legs. Upon
which they scrutinized the very scanty articles of dress which the
wild men had left upon them, and lastly one began to eye the other
with curious puzzled looks.
The wife, attributing their gestures to the confusion which one
might expect to find in the brains of men who have just undergone so
great a trial as amputation of the head must be, stood before them for
a moment or two. She then with a cry of gladness flew to the bosom of
the individual who was, as she supposed, her husband. He repulsed her,
telling her that she was mistaken. Then, blushing deeply in spite of
her other emotions, she threw both her beautiful arms round the neck
of the person who must be, she naturally concluded, the right man. To
her utter confusion, he also shrank back from her embrace.
Then a horrid thought flashed across her mind: she perceived her
fatal mistake, and her heart almost ceased to beat.
"This is thy wife!" cried the Brahman's head that had been fastened
to the soldier's body.
"No; she is thy wife!" replied the soldier's head which had been
placed upon the Brahman's body.
"Then she is my wife!" rejoined the first compound creature.
"By no means! she is my wife," cried the second.
"What then am I?" asked Devasharma-Gunakar.
"What do you think I am?" answered GunakarDevasharma, with another
"Unmadini shall be mine," quoth the head.
"You lie, she shall be mine," shouted the body.
"Holy Yama,[FN#160] hear the villain," exclaimed both of them at
the same moment.
* * * * *
In short, having thus begun, they continued
to quarrel violently, each one declaring that the beautiful Unmadini
belonged to him, and to him only. How to settle their dispute Brahma
the Lord of creatures only knows. I do not, except by cutting off
their heads once more, and by putting them in their proper places. And
I am quite sure, O Raja Vikram! that thy wits are quite unfit to
answer the question, To which of these two is the beautiful Unmadini
wife? It is even said—amongst us Baitals—that when this pair of
half-husbands appeared in the presence of the Just King, a terrible
confusion arose, each head declaiming all the sins and peccadilloes
which its body had committed, and that Yama the holy ruler himself
hit his forefinger with vexation.[FN#161]
Here the young prince Dharma Dhwaj burst out laughing at the
ridiculous idea of the wrong heads. And the warrior king, who, like
single-minded fathers in general, was ever in the idea that his son
had a velleity for deriding and otherwise vexing him, began a severe
course of reproof. He reminded the prince of the common saying that
merriment without cause degrades a man in the opinion of his fellows,
and indulged him with a quotation extensively used by grave fathers,
namely, that the loud laugh bespeaks a vacant mind. After which he
proceeded with much pompousness to pronounce the following opinion:
"It is said .n the Shastras——"
"Your majesty need hardly display so much erudition! Doubtless it
comes from the lips of Jayudeva or some other one of your Nine Gems
of Science, who know much more about their songs and their stanzas
than they do about their scriptures," insolently interrupted the
Baital, who never lost an opportunity of carping at those reverend
"It is said in the Shastras," continued Raja Vikram sternly, after
hesitating whether he should or should not administer a corporeal
correction to the Vampire, "that Mother Ganga[FN#162] is the queen
amongst rivers, and the mountain Sumeru[FN#163] is the monarch among
mountains, and the tree Kalpavriksha[FN#164] is the king of all trees,
and the head of man is the best and most excellent of limbs. And thus,
according to this reason, the wife belonged to him whose noblest
position claimed her."
"The next thing your majesty will do, I suppose," continued the
Baital, with a sneer, "is to support the opinions of the Digambara,
who maintains that the soul is exceedingly rarefied, confined to one
place, and of equal dimensions with the body, or the fancies of that
worthy philosopher Jaimani, who, conceiving soul and mind and matter
to be things purely synonymous, asserts outwardly and writes in his
books that the brain is the organ of the mind which is acted upon by
the immortal soul, but who inwardly and verily believes that the brain
is the mind, and consequently that the brain is the soul or spirit or
whatever you please to call it; in fact, that soul is a natural
faculty of the body. A pretty doctrine, indeed, for a Brahman to hold.
You might as well agree with me at once that the soul of man resides,
when at home, either in a vein in the breast, or in the pit of his
stomach, or that half of it is in a man's brain and the other or
reasoning half is in his heart, an organ of his body."
"What has all this string of words to do with the matter, Vampire?"
asked Raja Vikram angrily.
"Only," said the demon laughing, "that in my opinion, as opposed
to the Shastras and to Raja Vikram, that the beautiful Unmadini
belonged, not to the head part but to the body part. Because the
latter has an immortal soul in the pit of its stomach, whereas the
former is a box of bone, more or less thick, and contains brains
which are of much the same consistence as those of a calf."
"Villain!" exclaimed the Raja, "does not the soul or conscious life
enter the body through the sagittal suture and lodge in the brain,
thence to contemplate, through the same opening, the divine
"I must, however, bid you farewell for the moment, O warrior king,
Sakadhipati-Vikramadityal[FN#165]! I feel a sudden and ardent desire
to change this cramped position for one more natural to me."
The warrior monarch had so far committed himself that he could not
prevent the Vampire from flitting. But he lost no more time in
following him than a grain of mustard, in its fall, stays on a cow's
horn. And when he had thrown him over his shoulder, the king desired
him of his own accord to begin a new tale.
"O my left eyelid flutters," exclaimed the Baital in despair, "my
heart throbs, my sight is dim: surely now beginneth the end. It is as
Vidhata hath written on my forehead—how can it be otherwise[FN#166]?
Still listen, O mighty Raja, whilst I recount to you a true story, and
Saraswati[FN#167] sit on my tongue."
The Baital said, O king, in the Gaur country, Vardhman by name,
there is a city, and one called Gunshekhar was the Raja of that land.
His minister was one Abhaichand, a Jain, by whose teachings the king
also came into the Jain faith.
The worship of Shiva and of Vishnu, gifts of cows, gifts of lands,
gifts of rice balls, gaming and spirit-drinking, all these he
prohibited. In the city no man could get leave to do them, and as for
bones, into the Ganges no man was allowed to throw them, and in these
matters the minister, having taken orders from the king, caused a
proclamation to be made about the city, saying, "Whoever these acts
shall do, the Raja having confiscated, will punish him and banish him
from the city."
Now one day the Diwan[FN#169] began to say to the Raja, "O great
king, to the decisions of the Faith be pleased to give ear. Whosoever
takes the life of another, his life also in the future birth is taken:
this very sin causes him to be born again and again upon earth and to
die And thus he ever continues to be born again and to die. Hence for
one who has found entrance into this world to cultivate religion is
right and proper. Be pleased to behold! By love, by wrath, by pain, by
desire, and by fascination overpowered, the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and
Mahadeva (Shiva) in various ways upon the earth are ever becoming
incarnate. Far better than they is the Cow, who is free from passion,
enmity, drunkenness, anger, covetousness, and inordinate affection,
who supports mankind, and whose progeny in many ways give ease and
solace to the creatures of the world These deities and sages (munis)
believe in the Cow.[FN#170]
"For such reason to believe in the gods is not good. Upon this
earth be pleased to believe in the Cow. It is our duty to protect the
life of everyone, beginning from the elephant, through ants, beasts,
and birds, up to man. In the world righteousness equal to that there
is none. Those who, eating the flesh of other creatures, increase
their own flesh, shall in the fulness of time assuredly obtain the
fruition of Narak [FN#17l]; hence for a man it is proper to attend to
the conversation of life. They who understand not the pain of other
creatures, and who continue to slay and to devour them, last but few
days in the land, and return to mundane existence, maimed, limping,
one-eyed, blind, dwarfed, hunchbacked, and imperfect in such wise.
Just as they consume the bodies of beasts and of birds, even so they
end by spoiling their own bodies. From drinking spirits also the great
sin arises, hence the consuming of spirits and flesh is not
The minister having in this manner explained to the king the
sentiments of his own mind, so brought him over to the Jain faith,
that whatever he said, so the king did. Thus in Brahmans, in Jogis,
in Janganis, in Sevras, in Sannyasis,[FN#172] and in religious
mendicants, no man believed, and according to this creed the rule was
Now one day, being in the power of Death, Raja Gunshekhar died.
Then his son Dharmadhwaj sat upon the carpet (throne), and began to
rule. Presently he caused the minister Abhaichand to be seized, had
his head shaved all but seven locks of hair, ordered his face to be
blackened, and mounting him on an ass, with drums beaten, had him led
all about the city, and drove him from the kingdom. From that time he
carried on his rule free from all anxiety.
It so happened that in the season of spring, the king Dharmadhwaj,
taking his queens with him, went for a stroll in the garden, where
there was a large tank with lotuses blooming within it. The Raja
admiring its beauty, took off his clothes and went down to bathe.
After plucking a flower and coming to the bank, he was going to
give it into the hands of one of his queens, when it slipped from his
fingers, fell upon her foot, and broke it with the blow. Then the
Raja being alarmed, at once came out of the tank, and began to apply
remedies to her.
Hereupon night came on, and the moon shone brightly: the falling
of its rays on the body of the second queen formed blisters And
suddenly from a distance the sound of a wooden pestle came out of a
householder's dwelling, when the third queen fainted away with a
severe pain in the head
Having spoken thus much the Baital said "O my king! of these three
which is the most delicate?" The Raja answered, "She indeed is the
most delicate who fainted in consequence of the headache." The Baital
hearing this speech, went and hung himself from the very same tree,
and the Raja, having gone there and taken him down and fastened him in
the bundle and placed him on his shoulder, carried him away.
There is a queer time coming, O Raja Vikram!—a queer time coming
(said the Vampire), a queer time coming. Elderly people like you talk
abundantly about the good old days that were, and about the degeneracy
of the days that are. I wonder what you would say if you could but
look forward a few hundred years.
Brahmans shall disgrace themselves by becoming soldiers and being
killed, and Serviles (Shudras) shall dishonour themselves by wearing
the thread of the twiceborn, and by refusing to be slaves; in fact,
society shall be all "mouth" and mixed castes.[FN#173] The courts of
justice shall be disused; the great works of peace shall no longer be
undertaken; wars shall last six weeks, and their causes shall be clean
forgotten; the useful arts and great sciences shall die starved; there
shall be no Gems of Science; there shall be a hospital for destitute
kings, those, at least, who do not lose their heads, and no
A severe shaking stayed for a moment the Vampire's tongue.
He presently resumed. Briefly, building tanks feeding Brahmans;
lying when one ought to lie; suicide, the burning of widows, and the
burying of live children, shall become utterly unfashionable.
The consequence of this singular degeneracy, O mighty Vikram, will
be that strangers shall dwell beneath the roof tree in Bharat Khanda
(India), and impure barbarians shall call the land their own. They
come from a wonderful country, and I am most surprised that they bear
it. The sky which ought to be gold and blue is there grey, a kind of
dark white; the sun looks deadly pale, and the moon as if he were
dead.[FN#174] The sea, when not dirty green, glistens with yellowish
foam, and as you approach the shore, tall ghastly cliffs, like the
skeletons of giants, stand up to receive or ready to repel. During the
greater pert of the sun's Dakhshanayan (southern declination) the
country is covered with a sort of cold white stuff which dazzles the
eyes; and at such times the air is obscured with what appears to be a
shower of white feathers or flocks of cotton. At other seasons there
is a pale glare produced by the mist clouds which spread themselves
over the lower firmament. Even the faces of the people are white; the
men are white when not painted blue; the women are whiter, and the
children are whitest: these indeed often have white hair.
"Truly," exclaimed Dharma Dhwaj, "says the proverb, 'Whoso seeth
the world telleth many a lie.'"
At present (resumed the Vampire, not heeding the interruption),
they run about naked in the woods, being merely Hindu outcastes.
Presently they will change— the wonderful white Pariahs! They will
eat all food indifferently, domestic fowls, onions, hogs fed in the
street, donkeys, horses, hares, and (most horrible!) the flesh of the
sacred cow. They will imbibe what resembles meat of colocynth, mixed
with water, producing a curious frothy liquid, and a fiery stuff which
burns the mouth, for their milk will be mostly chalk and pulp of
brains; they will ignore the sweet juices of fruits and sugar-cane,
and as for the pure element they will drink it, but only as medicine,
They will shave their beards instead of their heads, and stand upright
when they should sit down, and squat upon a wooden frame instead of a
carpet, and appear in red and black like the children of Yama.[FN#175]
They will never offer sacrifices to the manes of ancestors, leaving
them after their death to fry in the hottest of places. Yet will they
perpetually quarrel and fight about their faith; for their tempers are
fierce, and they would burst if they could not harm one another. Even
now the children, who amuse themselves with making puddings on the
shore, that is to say, heaping up the sand, always end their little
games with "punching," which means shutting the hand and striking one
another's heads, and it is soon found that the children are the
fathers of the men.
These wonderful white outcastes will often be ruled by female
chiefs, and it is likely that the habit of prostrating themselves
before a woman who has not the power of cutting off a single head,
may account for their unusual degeneracy and uncleanness. They will
consider no occupation so noble as running after a jackal; they will
dance for themselves, holding on to strange women, and they will take
a pride in playing upon instruments, like young music girls.
The women, of course, relying upon the aid of the female
chieftains, will soon emancipate themselves from the rules of
modesty. They will eat with their husbands and with other men, and
yawn and sit carelessly before them showing the backs of their heads.
They will impudently quote the words, "By confinement at home, even
under affectionate and observant guardians, women are not secure, but
those are really safe who are guarded by their own inclinations "; as
the poet sang—
Woman obeys one only word, her heart.
They will not allow their husbands to have more than one wife, and
even the single wife will not be his slave when he needs her services,
busying herself in the collection of wealth, in ceremonial
purification, and feminine duty; in the preparation of daily food and
in the superintendence of household utensils. What said Rama of Sita
his wife?" If I chanced to be angry, she bore my impatience like the
patient earth without a murmur; in the hour of necessity she cherished
me as a mother does her child; in the moments of repose she was a
lover to me; in times of gladness she was to me as a friend." And it
is said, "a religious wife assists her husband in his worship with a
spirit as devout as his own. She gives her whole mind to make him
happy; she is as faithful to him as a shadow to the body, and she
esteems him, whether poor or rich, good or bad, handsome or deformed.
In his absence or his sickness she renounces every gratification; at
his death she dies with him, and he enjoys heaven as the fruit of her
virtuous deeds. Whereas if she be guilty of many wicked actions and he
should die first, he must suffer much for the demerits of his wife."
But these women will talk aloud, and scold as the braying ass, and
make the house a scene of variance, like the snake with the
ichneumon, the owl with the crow, for they have no fear of losing
their noses or parting with their ears. They will (O my mother!)
converse with strange men and take their hands; they will receive
presents from them, and, worst of all, they will show their white
faces openly without the least sense of shame; they will ride
publicly in chariots and mount horses, whose points they pride
themselves upon knowing, and eat and drink in crowded places— their
husbands looking on the while, and perhaps even leading them through
the streets. And she will be deemed the pinnacle of the pagoda of
perfection, that most excels in wit and shamelessness, and who can
turn to water the livers of most men. They will dance and sing instead
of minding their children, and when these grow up they will send them
out of the house to shift for themselves, and care little if they
never see them again.[FN#176] But the greatest sin of all will be
this: when widowed they will ever be on the look-out for a second
husband, and instances will be known of women fearlessly marrying
three, four, and five times.[FN#177] You would think that all this
licence satisfies them. But no! The more they have the more their weak
minds covet. The men have admitted them to an equality, they will aim
at an absolute superiority, and claim respect and homage; they will
eternally raise tempests about their rights, and if anyone should
venture to chastise them as they deserve, they would call him a coward
and run off to the judge.
The men will, I say, be as wonderful about their women as about
all other matters. The sage of Bharat Khanda guards the frail sex
strictly, knowing its frailty, and avoids teaching it to read and
write, which it will assuredly use for a bad purpose. For women are
ever subject to the god[FN#178] with the sugar-cane bow and string of
bees, and arrows tipped with heating blossoms, and to him they will
ever surrender man, dhan, tan—mind, wealth, and body. When, by
exceeding cunning, all human precautions have been made vain, the wise
man bows to Fate, and he forgets, or he tries to forget, the past.
Whereas this race of white Pariahs will purposely lead their women
into every kind of temptation, and, when an accident occurs, they will
rage at and accuse them, killing ten thousand with a word, and cause
an uproar, and talk scandal and be scandalized, and go before the
magistrate, and make all the evil as public as possible. One would
think they had in every way done their duty to their women!
And when all this change shall have come over them, they will feel
restless and take flight, and fall like locusts upon the Aryavartta
(land of India). Starving in their own country, they will find enough
to eat here, and to carry away also. They will be mischievous as the
saw with which ornament-makers trim their shells, and cut ascending as
well as descending. To cultivate their friendship will be like making
a gap in the water, and their partisans will ever fare worse than
their foes. They will be selfish as crows, which, though they eat
every kind of flesh, will not permit other birds to devour that of the
In the beginning they will hire a shop near the mouth of mother
Ganges, and they will sell lead and bullion, fine and coarse woollen
cloths, and all the materials for intoxication. Then they will begin
to send for soldiers beyond the sea, and to enlist warriors in
Zambudwipa (India). They will from shopkeepers become soldiers: they
will beat and be beaten; they will win and lose; but the power of
their star and the enchantments of their Queen Kompani, a daina or
witch who can draw the blood out of a man and slay him with a look,
will turn everything to their good. Presently the noise of their
armies shall be as the roaring of the sea; the dazzling of their arms
shall blind the eyes like lightning; their battle-fields shall be as
the dissolution of the world; and the slaughter-ground shall resemble
a garden of plantain trees after a storm. At length they shall spread
like the march of a host of ants over the land They will swear, "Dehar
Ganga[FN#179]!" and they hate nothing so much as being compelled to
destroy an army, to take and loot a city, or to add a rich slip of
territory to their rule. And yet they will go on killing and capturing
and adding region to region, till the Abode of Snow (Himalaya)
confines them to the north, the Sindhu-naddi (Incus) to the west, and
elsewhere the sea. Even in this, too, they will demean themselves as
lords and masters, scarcely allowing poor Samudradevta[FN#180] to rule
his own waves.
Raja Vikram was in a silent mood, otherwise he would not have
allowed such ill-omened discourse to pass uninterrupted. Then the
Baital, who in vain had often paused to give the royal carrier a
chance of asking him a curious question, continued his recital in a
dissonant and dissatisfied tone of voice.
By my feet and your head,[FN#181] O warrior king! it will fare
badly in those days for the Rajas of Hindustan, when the red-coated
men of Shaka[FN#182] shall come amongst them. Listen to my words.
In the Vindhya Mountain there will be a city named Dharmapur,
whose king will be called Mahabul. He will be a mighty warrior,
well-skilled in the dhanur-veda (art of war)[FN#183], and will always
lead his own armies to the field. He will duly regard all the omens,
such as a storm at the beginning of the march, an earthquake, the
implements of war dropping from the hands of the soldiery, screaming
vultures passing over or walking near the army, the clouds and the
sun's rays waxing red, thunder in a clear sky, the moon appearing
small as a star, the dropping of blood from the clouds, the falling of
lightning bolts, darkness filling the four quarters of the heavens, a
corpse or a pan of water being carried to the right of the army, the
sight of a female beggar with dishevelled hair, dressed in red, and
preceding the vanguard, the starting of the flesh over the left ribs
of the commander-in-chief, and the weeping or turning back of the
horses when urged forward.
He will encourage his men to single combats, and will carefully
train them to gymnastics. Many of the wrestlers and boxers will be so
strong that they will often beat all the extremities of the antagonist
into his body, or break his back, or rend him into two pieces. He will
promise heaven to those who shall die in the front of battle and he
will have them taught certain dreadful expressions of abuse to be
interchanged with the enemy when commencing the contest. Honours will
be conferred on those who never turn their backs in an engagement, who
manifest a contempt of death, who despise fatigue, as well as the most
formidable enemies, who shall be found invincible in every combat, and
who display a courage which increases before danger, like the glory of
the sun advancing to his meridian splendour.
But King Mahabul will be attacked by the white Pariahs, who, as
usual, will employ against him gold, fire, and steel. With gold they
will win over his best men, and persuade them openly to desert when
the army is drawn out for battle. They will use the terrible "fire
weapon,[FN#184]'' large and small tubes, which discharge flame and
smoke, and bullets as big as those hurled by the bow of
Bharata.[FN#185] And instead of using swords and shields, they will
fix daggers to the end of their tubes, and thrust with them like
Mahabul, distinguished by valour and military skill, will march out
of his city to meet the white foe. In front will be the ensigns,
bells, cows'-tails, and flags, the latter painted with the bird
Garura,[FN#186] the bull of Shiva, the Bauhinia tree, the monkey-god
Hanuman, the lion and the tiger, the fish, an alms-dish, and seven
palm-trees. Then will come the footmen armed with fire-tubes, swords
and shields, spears and daggers, clubs, and bludgeons. They will be
followed by fighting men on horses and oxen, on camels and elephants.
The musicians, the water-carriers, and lastly the stores on carriages,
will bring up the rear.
The white outcastes will come forward in a long thin red thread,
and vomiting fire like the Jwalamukhi.[FN#187] King Mahabul will
receive them with his troops formed in a circle; another division will
be in the shape of a halfmoon; a third like a cloud, whilst others
shall represent a lion, a tiger, a carriage, a lily, a giant, and a
bull. But as the elephants will all turn round when they feel the
fire, and trample upon their own men, and as the cavalry defiling in
front of the host will openly gallop away; Mahabul, being thus without
resource, will enter his palanquin, and accompanied by his queen and
their only daughter, will escape at night-time into the forest.
The unfortunate three will be deserted by their small party, and
live for a time on jungle food, fruits and roots; they will even be
compelled to eat game. After some days they will come in sight of a
village, which Mahabul will enter to obtain victuals. There the wild
Bhils, famous for long years, will come up, and surrounding the party,
will bid the Raja throw down his arms. Thereupon Mahabul, skilful in
aiming, twanging and wielding the bow on all sides, so as to keep off
the bolts of the enemy, will discharge his bolts so rapidly, that one
will drive forward another, and none of the barbarians will be able to
approach. But he will have failed to bring his quiver containing an
inexhaustible store of arms, some of which, pointed with diamonds,
shall have the faculty of returning again to their case after they
have done their duty. The conflict will continue three hours, and many
of the Bhils will be slain: at length a shaft will cleave the king's
skull, he will fall dead, and one of the wild men will come up and cut
off his head.
When the queen and the princess shall have seen that Mahabul fell
dead, they will return to the forest weeping and beating their
bosoms. They will thus escape the Bhils, and after journeying on for
four miles, at length they will sit down wearied, and revolve many
thoughts ir; their minds.
They are very lovely (continued the Vampire), as I see them with
the eye of clear-seeing. What beautiful hair! it hangs down like the
tail of the cow of Tartary, or like the thatch of a house; it is
shining as oil, dark as the clouds, black as blackness itself. What
charming faces! likest to water-lilies, with eyes as the stones in
unripe mangos, noses resembling the beaks of parrots, teeth like
pearls set in corals, ears like those of the redthroated vulture, and
mouths like the water of life. What excellent forms! breasts like
boxes containing essences, the unopened fruit of plantains or a couple
of crabs; loins the width of a span, like the middle of the viol; legs
like the trunk of an elephant, and feet like the yellow lotus.
And a fearful place is that jungle, a dense dark mass of thorny
shrubs, and ropy creepers, and tall canes, and tangled brake, and
gigantic gnarled trees, which groan wildly in the night wind's
embrace. But a wilder horror urges the unhappy women on; they fear
the polluting touch of the Bhils; once more they rise and plunge
deeper into its gloomy depths.
The day dawns. The white Pariahs have done their usual work, They
have cut off the hands of some, the feet and heads of others, whilst
many they have crushed into shapeless masses, or scattered in pieces
upon the ground. The field is strewed with corpses, the river runs
red, so that the dogs and jackals swim in blood; the birds of prey
sitting on the branches, drink man's life from the stream, and enjoy
the sickening smell of burnt flesh.
Such will be the scenes acted in the fair land of Bharat.
Perchance two white outcastes, father and son, who with a party of
men are scouring the forest and slaying everything, fall upon the
path which the women have taken shortly before. Their attention is
attracted by footprints leading towards a place full of tigers,
leopards, bears, wolves, and wild dogs. And they are utterly
confounded when, after inspection, they discover the sex of the
"How is it," shall say the father, "that the footprints of mortals
are seen in this part of the forest?"
The son shall reply, "Sir, these are the marks of women's feet: a
man's foot would not be so small."
"It is passing strange," shall rejoin the elder white Pariah, "but
thou speakest truth. Certainly such a soft and delicate foot cannot
belong to anyone but a woman."
"They have only just left the track," shall continue the son, "and
look! this is the step of a married woman. See how she treads on the
inside of her sole, because of the bending of her ankles." And the
younger white outcaste shall point to the queen's footprints.
"Come, let us search the forest for them," shall cry the father,
"what an opportunity of finding wives fortune has thrown in our
hands. But no! thou art in error," he shall continue, after examining
the track pointed out by his son, "in supposing this to be the sign
of a matron. Look at the other, it is much longer; the toes have
scarcely touched the ground, whereas the marks of the heels are deep.
Of a truth this must be the married woman." And the elder white
outcaste shall point to the footprints of the princess.
"Then," shall reply the son, who admires the shorter foot, "let us
first seek them, and when we find them, give to me her who has the
short feet, and take the other to wife thyself."
Having made this agreement they shall proceed on their way, and
presently they shall find the women lying on the earth, half dead
with fatigue and fear. Their legs and feet are scratched and torn by
brambles, their ornaments have fallen off, and their garments are in
strips. The two white outcastes find little difficulty, the first
surprise over, in persuading the unhappy women to follow them home,
and with great delight, conformably to their arrangement, each takes
up his prize on his horse and rides back to the tents. The son takes
the queen, and the father the princess.
In due time two marriages come to pass; the father, according to
agreement, espouses the long foot, and the son takes to wife the
short foot. And after the usual interval, the elder white outcaste,
who had married the daughter, rejoices at the birth of a boy, and the
younger white outcaste, who had married the mother, is gladdened by
the sight of a girl.
Now then, by my feet and your head, O warrior king Vikram, answer
me one question. What relationship will there be between the children
of the two white Pariahs?
Vikram's brow waxed black as a charcoal-burner's, when he again
heard the most irreverent oath ever proposed to mortal king. The
question presently attracted his attention, and he turned over the
Baital's words in his head, confusing the ties of filiality,
brotherhood, and relationship, and connection in general.
"Hem!" said the warrior king, at last perplexed, and remembering,
in his perplexity, that he had better hold his tongue—"ahem!"
"I think your majesty spoke? " asked the Vampire, in an inquisitive
and insinuating tone of voice.
"Hem!" ejaculated the monarch.
The Baital held his peace for a few minutes, coughing once or
twice impatiently. He suspected that the extraordinary nature of this
last tale, combined with the use of the future tense, had given rise
to a taciturnity so unexpected in the warrior king. He therefore asked
if Vikram the Brave would not like to hear another little anecdote.
"This time the king did not even say "hem!" Having walked at an
unusually rapid pace, he distinguished at a distance the fire kindled
by the devotee, and he hurried towards it with an effort which left
him no breath wherewith to speak, even had he been so inclined.
"Since your majesty is so completely dumbfoundered by it, perhaps
this acute young prince may be able to answer my question?" insinuated
the Baital, after a few minutes of anxious suspense.
But Dharma Dhwaj answered not a syllable.
At Raja Vikram's silence the Baital was greatly surprised, and he
praised the royal courage and resolution to the skies. Still he did
not give up the contest at once.
"Allow me, great king," pursued the Demon, in a dry tone of voice,
"to wish you joy. After so many failures you have at length succeeded
in repressing your loquacity. I will not stop to enquire whether it
was humility and self-restraint which prevented your answering my last
question, or whether Rajait was mere ignorance and inability. Of
course I suspect the latter, but to say the truth your condescension
in at last taking a Vampire's advice, flatters me so much, that I will
not look too narrowly into cause or motive."
Raja Vikram winced, but maintained a stubborn silence, squeezing
his lips lest they should open involuntarily.
"Now, however, your majesty has mortified, we will suppose, a
somewhat exacting vanity, I also will in my turn forego the pleasure
which I had anticipated in seeing you a corpse and in entering your
royal body for a short time, just to know how queer it must feel to be
a king. And what is more, I will now perform my original promise, and
you shall derive from me a benefit which none but myself can bestow.
First, however, allow me to ask you, will you let me have a little
Dharma Dhwaj pulled his father's sleeve, but this time Raja Vikram
required no reminder: wild horses or the executioner's saw, beginning
at the shoulder, would not have drawn a word from him. Observing his
obstinate silence, the Baital, with an ominous smile, continued:
"Now give ear, O warrior king, to what I am about to tell thee, and
bear in mind the giant's saying, 'A man is justified in killing one
who has a design to kill him.' The young merchant Mal Deo, who placed
such magnificent presents at your royal feet, and Shanta-Shil the
devotee saint, who works his spells, incantations, and magical rites
in a cemetery on the banks of the Godaveri river, are, as thou
knowest, one person—the terrible Jogi, whose wrath your father
aroused in his folly, and whose revenge your blood alone can satisfy.
With regard to myself, the oilman's son, the same Jogi, fearing lest I
might interfere with his projects of universal dominion, slew me by
the power of his penance, and has kept me suspended, a trap for you,
head downwards from the sires-tree.
"That Jogi it was, you now know, who sent you to fetch me back to
him on your back. And when you cast me at his feet he will return
thanks to you and praise your velour, perseverance and resolution to
the skies. I warn you to beware. He will lead you to the shrine of
Durga, and when he has finished his adoration he will say to you, 'O
great king, salute my deity with the eightlimbed reverence.' "
Here the Vampire whispered for a time and in a low tone, lest some
listening goblin might carry his words if spoken out loud to the ears
of the devotee Shanta-Shil.
At the end of the monologue a rustling sound was heard. It
proceeded from the Baital, who was disengaging himself from the dead
body in the bundle, and the burden became sensibly lighter upon the
The departing Baital, however, did not forget to bid farewell to
the warrior king and to his son. He complimented the former for the
last time, in his own way, upon the royal humility and the prodigious
self-mortification which he had displayed—qualities, he remarked,
which never failed to ensure the proprietor's success in all the
Raja Vikram stepped out joyfully, and soon reached the burning
ground. There he found the Jogi, dressed in his usual habit, a
deerskin thrown over his back, and twisted reeds instead of a garment
hanging round his loins. The hair had fallen from his limbs and his
skin was bleached ghastly white by exposure to the elements. A fire
seemed to proceed from his mouth, and the matted locks dropping from
his head to the ground were changed by the rays of the sun to the
colour of gold or saffron. He had the beard of a goat and the
ornaments of a king; his shoulders were high and his arms long,
reaching to his knees: his nails grew to such a length as to curl
round the ends of his fingers, and his feet resembled those of a
tiger. He was drumming upon a skull, and incessantly exclaiming, "Ho,
Kali! ho, Durga! ho, Devi!"
As before, strange beings were holding their carnival in the Jogi's
presence. Monstrous Asuras, giant goblins, stood grimly gazing upon
the scene with fixed eyes and motionless features. Rakshasas and
messengers of Yama, fierce and hideous, assumed at pleasure the shapes
of foul and ferocious beasts. Nagas and Bhutas, partly human and
partly bestial, disported themselves in throngs about the upper air,
and were dimly seen in the faint light of the dawn. Mighty Daityas,
Bramba-daityas, and Pretas, the size of a man's thumb, or dried up
like leaves, and Pisachas of terrible power guarded the place. There
were enormous goats, vivified by the spirits of those who had slain
Brahmans; things with the bodies of men and the faces of horses,
camels and monkeys; hideous worms containing the souls of those
priests who had drunk spirituous liquors; men with one leg and one
ear, and mischievous blood-sucking demons, who in life had stolen
church property. There were vultures, wretches that had violated the
beds of their spiritual fathers, restless ghosts that had loved
low-caste women, shades for whom funeral rites had not been performed,
and who could not cross the dread Vaitarani stream,[FN#188] and vital
souls fresh from the horrors of Tamisra, or utter darkness, and the
Usipatra Vana, or the sword-leaved forest. Pale spirits, Alayas,
Gumas, Baitals, and Yakshas,[FN#189] beings of a base and vulgar
order, glided over the ground, amongst corpses and skeletons animated
by female fiends, Dakinis, Yoginis, Hakinis, and Shankinis, which were
dancing in frightful revelry. The air was filled with supernatural
sights and sounds, cries of owls and jackals, cats and crows, dogs,
asses, and vultures, high above which rose the clashing of the bones
with which the Jogi sat drumming upon the skull before him, and
tending a huge cauldron of oil whose smoke was of blue fire. But as he
raised his long lank arm, silver-white with ashes, the demons fled,
and a momentary silence succeeded to their uproar. The tigers ceased
to roar and the elephants to scream; the bears raised their snouts
from their foul banquets, and the wolves dropped from their jaws the
remnants of human flesh. And when they disappeared, the hooting of the
owl, and ghastly "ha! ha!" of the curlew, and the howling of the
jackal died away in the far distance, leaving a silence still more
As Raja Vikram entered the burning-ground, the hollow sound of
solitude alone met his ear. Sadly wailed the wet autumnal blast. The
tall gaunt trees groaned aloud, and bowed and trembled like slaves
bending before their masters. Huge purple clouds and patches and lines
of glaring white mist coursed furiously across the black expanse of
firmament, discharging threads and chains and lozenges and balls of
white and blue, purple and pink lightning, followed by the deafening
crash and roll of thunder, the dreadful roaring of the mighty wind,
and the torrents of plashing rain. At times was heard in the distance
the dull gurgling of the swollen river, interrupted by explosions, as
slips of earth-bank fell headlong into the stream. But once more the
Jogi raised his arm and all was still: nature lay breathless, as if
awaiting the effect of his tremendous spells.
The warrior king drew near the terrible man, unstrung his bundle
from his back, untwisted the portion which he held, threw open the
cloth, and exposed to Shanta-Shil's glittering eyes the corpse, which
had now recovered its proper form—that of a young child. Seeing it,
the devotee was highly pleased, and thanked Vikram the Brave,
extolling his courage and daring above any monarch that had yet lived.
After which he repeated certain charms facing towards the south,
awakened the dead body, and placed it in a sitting position. He then
in its presence sacrificed to his goddess, the White One,[FN#190] all
that he had ready by his side—betel leaf and flowers, sandal wood and
unbroken rice, fruits, perfumes, and the flesh of man untouched by
steel. Lastly, he half filled his skull with burning embers, blew upon
them till they shot forth tongues of crimson light, serving as a lamp,
and motioning the Raja and his son to follow him, led the way to a
little fane of the Destroying Deity erected in a dark clump of wood,
outside and close to the burning ground.
They passed through the quadrangular outer court of the temple
whose piazza was hung with deep shade.[FN#191] In silence they
circumambulated the small central shrine, and whenever Shanta-Shil
directed, Raja Vikram entered the Sabha, or vestibule, and struck
three times upon the gong, which gave forth a loud and warning sound.
They then passed over the threshold, and looked into the gloomy
inner depths. There stood Smashana-Kali,[FN#192] the goddess, in her
most horrid form. She was a naked and very black woman, with
half-severed head, partly cut and partly painted, resting on her
shoulder; and her tongue lolled out from her wide yawning
mouth[FN#193]; her eyes were red like those of a drunkard; and her
eyebrows were of the same colour: her thick coarse hair hung like a
mantle to her heels. She was robed in an elephant's hide, dried and
withered, confined at the waist with a belt composed of the hands of
the giants whom she had slain in war: two dead bodies formed her
earrings, and her necklace was of bleached skulls. Her four arms
supported a scimitar, a noose, a trident, and a ponderous mace. She
stood with one leg on the breast of her husband, Shiva, and she rested
the other on his thigh. Before the idol lay the utensils of worship,
namely, dishes for the offerings, lamps, jugs, incense, copper cups,
conches and gongs; and all of them smelt of blood.
As Raja Vikram and his son stood gazing upon the hideous
spectacle, the devotee stooped down to place his skull-lamp upon the
ground, and drew from out his ochre-coloured cloth a sharp sword which
he hid behind his back.
"Prosperity to shine and thy son's for ever and ever, O mighty
Vikram!" exclaimed Shanta-Shil, after he had muttered a prayer before
the image. "Verily thou hast right royally redeemed thy pledge, and by
the virtue of thy presence all my wishes shall presently be
accomplished. Behold! the Sun is about to drive his car over the
eastern hills, and our task now ends. Do thou reverence before this my
deity, worshipping the earth through thy nose, and so prostrating
thyself that thy eight limbs may touch the ground.[FN#194] Thus shall
thy glory and splendour be great; the Eight Powers[FN#195] and the
Nine Treasures shall be thine, and prosperity shall ever remain under
Raja Vikram, hearing these words, recalled suddenly to mind all
that the Vampire had whispered to him. He brought his joined hands
open up to his forehead, caused his two thumbs to touch his brow
several times, and replied with the greatest humility,
"O pious person! I am a king ignorant of the way to do such
obeisance. Thou art a spiritual preceptor: be pleased to teach me and
I will do even as thou desirest."
Then the Jogi, being a cunning man, fell into his own net. As he
bent him down to salute the goddess, Vikram, drawing his sword,
struck him upon the neck so violent a blow, that his head rolled from
his body upon the ground. At the same moment Dharma Dhwaj, seizing his
father's arm, pulled him out of the way in time to escape being
crushed by the image, which fell with the sound of thunder upon the
floor of the temple.
A small thin voice in the upper air was heard to cry, "A man is
justified in killing one who has the desire to kill him." Then glad
shouts of triumph and victory were heard in all directions. They
proceeded from the celestial choristers, the heavenly dancers, the
mistresses of the gods, and the nymphs of Indra's Paradise, who left
their beds of gold and precious stones, their seats glorious as the
meridian sun, their canals of crystal water, their perfumed groves,
and their gardens where the wind ever blows in softest breezes, to
applaud the velour and good fortune of the warrior king.
At last the brilliant god, Indra himself, with the thousand eyes,
rising from the shade of the Parigat tree, the fragrance of whose
flowers fills the heavens, appeared in his car drawn by yellow steeds
and cleaving the thick vapours which surround the earth— whilst his
attendants sounded the heavenly drums and rained a shower of blossoms
and perfumes—bade the Vikramajit the Brave ask a boon.
The Raja joined his hands and respectfully replied,
"O mighty ruler of the lower firmament, let this my history become
famous throughout the world!"
"It is well," rejoined the god. "As long as the sun and moon
endure, and the sky looks down upon the ground, so long shall this
thy adventure be remembered over all the earth. Meanwhile rule thou
Thus saying, Indra retired to the delicious Amrawati[FN#196]
Vikram took up the corpses and threw them into the cauldron which
Shanta-Shil had been tending. At once two heroes started into life,
and Vikram said to them, "When I call you, come!"
With these mysterious words the king, followed by his son,
returned to the palace unmolested. As the Vampire had predicted,
everything was prosperous to him, and he presently obtained the
remarkable titles, Sakaro, or foe of the Sakas, and
And when, after a long and happy life spent in bringing the world
under the shadow of one umbrella, and in ruling it free from care,
the warrior king Vikram entered the gloomy realms of Yama, from whom
for mortals there is no escape, he left behind him a name that endured
amongst men like the odour of the flower whose memory remains long
after its form has mingled with the dust.[FN#197]
[FN#1] Metamorphoseon, seu de Asino Aureo, libri Xl. The well
known and beautiful episode is in the fourth. the fifth, and the sixth
[FN#2] This ceremony will be explained in a future page.
[FN#3] A common exclamation of sorrow, surprise, fear, and other
emotions. It is especially used by women.
[FN#4] Quoted from view of the Hindoos, by William Ward, of
Serampore (vol. i. p. 25).
[FN#5] In Sanskrit, Vetala-pancha-Vinshati. "Baital" is the
modern form of " Vetala.
[FN#6] In Arabic, Badpai el Hakim.
[FN#7] Dictionnaire philosophique sub v. " Apocryphes."
[FN#8] I do not mean that rhymes were not known before the days
of Al-Islam, but that the Arabs popularized assonance and consonance
in Southern Europe.
[FN#9] "Vikrama" means "valour " or " prowess."
[FN#10] Mr. Ward of Serampore is unable to quote the names of more
than nine out of the eighteen, namely: Sanskrit, Prakrit, Naga,
Paisacha, Gandharba, Rakshasa, Ardhamagadi, Apa, and Guhyaka —most
of them being the languages of different orders of fabulous beings. He
tells us, however, that an account of these dialects may be found in
the work called Pingala.
[FN#11] Translated by Sir Wm. Jones, 1789; and by Professor
[FN#12] Translated by Professor H. H. Wilson.
[FN#13] The time was propitious to savans. Whilst Vikramaditya
lived, Magha, another king, caused to be written a poem called after
his name For each verse he is said to have paid to learned men a gold
piece, which amounted to a total of 5,280l.—a large sum in those
days, which preceded those of Paradise Lost. About the same period
Karnata, a third king, was famed for patronizing the learned men who
rose to honour at Vikram's court. Dhavaka, a poet of nearly the same
period, received from King Shriharsha the magnificent present of
10,000l. for a poem called the Ratna-Mala.
[FN#14] Lieut. Wilford supports the theory that there were eight
Vikramadityas, the last of whom established the era. For further
particulars, the curious reader will consult Lassen's Anthologia, and
Professor H. H. Wilson's Essay on Vikram (New), As. Red.. ix. 117.
[FN#15] History tells us another tale. The god Indra and the King
of Dhara gave the kingdom to Bhartari-hari, another son of
Gandhar-ba-Sena, by a handmaiden. For some time, the brothers lived
together; but presently they quarrelled. Vikram being dismissed from
court, wandered from place to place in abject poverty, and at one time
hired himself as a servant to a merchant living in Guzerat. At length,
Bhartari-hari, disgusted with the world on account of the infidelity
of his wife, to whom he was ardently attached, became a religious
devotee, and left the kingdom to its fate. In the course of his
travels, Vikram came to Ujjayani, and finding it without a head,
assumed the sovereignty. He reigned with great splendour, conquering
by his arms Utkala, Vanga, Kuch-bahar, Guzerat, Somnat, Delhi, and
other places; until, in his turn, he was conquered, and slain by
[FN#16] The words are found, says Mr. Ward, in the Hindu History
compiled by Mrityungaya.
[FN#17] These duties of kings are thus laid down in the
Rajtarangini. It is evident, as Professor H. H. Wilson says, that the
royal status was by no means a sinecure. But the rules are evidently
the closet work of some pedantic, dogmatic Brahman, teaching kingcraft
to kings. He directs his instructions, not to subordinate judges, but
to the Raja as the chief magistrate, and through him to all appointed
for the administration of his justice.
[FN#18] Lunus, not Luna.
[FN#19] That is to say, "upon an empty stomach."
[FN#20] There are three sandhyas amongst the Hindus—morning,
mid-day, and sunset; and all three are times for prayer.
[FN#21] The Hindu Cupid.
[FN#22] Patali, the regions beneath the earth.
[FN#23] The Hindu Triad.
[FN#24] Or Avanti, also called Padmavati. It is the first meridian
of the Hindus, who found their longitude by observation of lunar
eclipses, calculated for it and Lanka, or Ceylon. The clepsydra was
used for taking time.
[FN#25] In the original only the husband ''practiced austere
devotion." For the benefit of those amongst whom the "pious wife" is
an institution, I have extended the privilege.
[FN#26] A Moslem would say, "This is our fate." A Hindu refers at
once to metempsychosis, as naturally as a modern Swedenborgian to
[FN#27] In Europe, money buys this world, and delivers you from
the pains of purgatory; amongst the Hindus, it furthermore opens the
gate of heaven.
[FN#28] This part of the introduction will remind the reader of
the two royal brothers and their false wives in the introduction to
the Arabian Nights. The fate of Bhartari Raja, however, is historical.
[FN#29] In the original, "Div"—a supernatural being god, or
demon. This part of the plot is variously told. According to some,
Raja Vikram was surprised, when entering the city to see a grand
procession at the house of a potter and a boy being carried off on an
elephant to the violent grief of his parents The King inquired the
reason of their sorrow, and was told that the wicked Div that guarded
the city was in the habit of eating a citizen per diem. Whereupon the
valorous Raja caused the boy to dismount; took his place; entered the
palace; and, when presented as food for the demon, displayed his
pugilistic powers in a way to excite the monsters admiration.
[FN#30] In India, there is still a monastic order the pleasant
duty of whose members is to enjoy themselves as much as possible. It
has been much the same in Europe. "Representez-vous le convent de
l'Escurial ou du Mont Cassin, ou les cenobites ont toutes sortes de
commodities, necessaires, utiles, delectables. superflues,
surabondantes, puisqu'ils ont les cent cinquante mille, les quatre
cent mille, les cinq cent mille ecus de rente; et jugez si monsieur
l'abbe a de quoi laisser dormir la meridienne a ceux qui
voudront."—Saint Augustin, de l'Ouvrage des Moines, by Le Camus,
Bishop of Belley, quoted by Voltaire, Dict. Phil., sub v.
[FN#31] This form of matrimony was recognized by the ancient
Hindus, and is frequent in books. It is a kind of Scotch wedding—
ultra-Caledonian—taking place by mutual consent, without any form or
ceremony. The Gandharbas are heavenly minstrels of Indra's court, who
are supposed to be witnesses.
[FN#32] The Hindu Saturnalia.
[FN#33] The powders are of wheaten flour, mixed with wild
ginger-root, sappan-wood, and other ingredients. Sometimes the stuff
is thrown in syringes.
[FN#34] The Persian proverb is— "Bala e tavilah bar sat i
maimun": "The woes of the stable be on the monkey's head!" In some
Moslem countries a hog acts prophylactic. Hence probably Mungo Park's
troublesome pig at Ludamar.
[FN#35] So the moribund father of the "babes in the wood"
lectures his wicked brother, their guardian:
"To God and you I recommend
My children deare this day:
But little while, be sure, we have
Within this world to stay."
But, to appeal to the moral sense of a goldsmith!
[FN#36] Maha (great) raja (king): common address even to those
who are not royal.
[FN#37] The name means. "Quietistic Disposition."
[FN#38] August. In the solar-lunar year of the Hindu the months
are divided into fortnights—light and dark.
[FN#39] A flower, whose name frequently occurs in Sanskrit
[FN#40] The stars being men's souls raised to the sky for a time
pro portioned to their virtuous deeds on earth.
[FN#41] A measure of length, each two miles.
[FN#42] The warm region below.
[FN#43] Hindus admire only glossy black hair; the "bonny brown
hair" loved by our ballads is assigned by them to low-caste men,
witches, and fiends.
[FN#44] A large kind of bat; a popular and silly Anglo-Indian
name. It almost justified the irate Scotchman in calling "prodigious
leears" those who told him in India that foxes flew and tress were
tapped for toddy.
[FN#45] The Hindus, like the European classics and other ancient
peoples, reckon four ages:—The Satya Yug, or Golden Age, numbered
1,728,000 years: the second, or Treta Yug, comprised 1,296,000; the
Dwapar Yug had 864,000 and the present, the Kali Yug, has shrunk to
[FN#46] Especially alluding to prayer. On this point, Southey
justly remarks (Preface to Curse of Kehama): "In the religion of the
Hindoos there is one remarkable peculiarity. Prayers, penances, and
sacrifices are supposed to possess an inherent and actual value, in
one degree depending upon the disposition or motive of the person who
performs them. They are drafts upon heaven for which the gods cannot
refuse payment. The worst men, bent upon the worst designs, have in
this manner obtained power which has made them formidable to the
supreme deities themselves." Moreover, the Hindu gods hear the prayers
of those who desire the evil of others. Hence when a rich man becomes
poor, his friends say, "See how sharp are men's teeth!" and, "He is
ruined because others could not bear to see his happiness!"
[FN#47] A pond. natural or artificial; in the latter case often
covering an extent of ten to twelve acres.
[FN#48] The Hindustani "gilahri," or little grey squirrel, whose
twittering cry is often mistaken for a bird's.
[FN#49] The autumn or rather the rainy season personified—a
hackneyed Hindu prosopopoeia.
[FN#50] Light conversation upon the subject of women is a persona
offence to serious-minded Hindus.
[FN#51] Cupid in his two forms, Eros and Anteros.
[FN#52] This is true to life in the East, women make the first
advances, and men do the begueules.
[FN#53] Raja-hans, a large grey goose, the Hindu equivalent for
[FN#54] Properly Karnatak; karna in Sanskrit means an ear.
[FN#55] Danta in Sanskrit is a tooth.
[FN#56] Padma means a foot.
[FN#57] A common Hindu phrase equivalent to our " I manage to get
[FN#58] Meaning marriage maternity, and so forth.
[FN#59] Yama is Pluto; 'mother of Yama' is generally applied to
an old scold.
[FN#60] Snake-land: the infernal region.
[FN#61] A form of abuse given to Durga, who was the mother of
Ganesha (Janus); the latter had an elephant's head.
[FN#62] Unexpected pleasure, according to the Hindus, gives a
bristly elevation to the down of the body.
[FN#63] The Hindus banish " flasks,'' et hoc genus omne, from
these scenes, and perhaps they are right.
[FN#64] The Pankha, or large common fan, is a leaf of the Corypha
umbraculifera, with the petiole cut to the length of about five feet,
pared round the edges and painted to look pretty. It is waved by the
servant standing behind a chair.
[FN#65] The fabulous mass of precious stones forming the sacred
mountain of Hindu mythology.
[FN#66] "I love my love with an 'S,' because he is stupid and not
[FN#67] Hindu mythology has also its Cerberus, Trisisa, the "
three headed " hound that attends dreadful Yama (Pluto)
[FN#68] Parceque c'est la saison des amours.
[FN#69] The police magistrate, the Catual of Camoens.
[FN#70] The seat of a Hindu ascetic.
[FN#71] The Hindu scriptures.
[FN#72] The Goddess of Prosperity.
[FN#73] In the original the lover is not blamed; this would be the
Hindu view of the matter; we might be tempted to think of the old
injunction not to seethe a kid in the mother's milk.
[FN#74] In the original a "maina "-the Gracula religiosa.
[FN#75] As we should say, buried them.
[FN#76] A large kind of black bee, common in India.
[FN#77] The beautiful wife of the demigod Rama Chandra.
[FN#78] The Hindu Ars Amoris.
[FN#79] The old philosophers, believing in a " Sat " (xx xx),
postulated an Asat (xx xx xx) and made the latter the root of the
[FN#80] In Western India, a place celebrated for suicides.
[FN#81] Kama Deva. "Out on thee, foul fiend, talk'st thou of
nothing but ladies?"
[FN#82] The pipal or Ficus religiosa, a favourite roosting-place
[FN#84] The ancient name of a priest by profession, meaning "
praepositus " or praeses. He was the friend and counsellor of a
chief, the minister of a king, and his companion in peace and war.
(M. Muller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 485).
[FN#85] Lakshmi, the Goddess of Prosperity. Raj-Lakshmi would
mean the King's Fortune, which we should call tutelary genius.
Lakshichara is our " luckless," forming, as Mr. Ward says, an
extraordinary coincidence of sound and meaning in languages so
different. But the derivations are very distinct.
[FN#86] The Monkey God.
[FN#87] Generally written "Banyan."
[FN#88] The daughter of Raja Janaka, married to Ramachandra. The
latter placed his wife under the charge of his brother Lakshmana, and
went into the forest to worship, when the demon Ravana disguised
himself as a beggar, and carried off the prize.
[FN#89] This great king was tricked by the god Vishnu out of the
sway of heaven and earth, but from his exceeding piety he was
appointed to reign in Patala, or Hades.
[FN#90] The procession is fair game, and is often attacked in the
dark with sticks and stones, causing serious disputes. At the supper
the guests confer the obligation by their presence, and are
[FN#91] Rati is the wife of Kama, the God of Desire; and we
explain the word by "Spring personified."
[FN#92] The Indian Cuckoo (Cucuius Indicus). It is supposed to
lay its eggs in the nest of the crow.
[FN#93] This is the well-known Ghi or Ghee, the one sauce of
India which is as badly off in that matter as England.
[FN#94] The European reader will observe that it is her purity
which carries the heroine through all these perils. Moreover, that
her :virtue is its own reward, as it loses to her the world.
[FN#95] Literally, "one of all tastes"—a wild or gay man, we
[FN#96] These shoes are generally made of rags and bits of
leather; they have often toes behind the foot, with other similar
contrivances, yet they scarcely ever deceive an experienced man.
[FN#97] The high-toper is a swell-thief, the other is a low dog.
[FN#98] Engaged in shoplifting.
[FN#99] The moon.
[FN#100] The judge.
[FN#101] To be lagged is to be taken; scragging is hanging.
[FN#102] The tongue.
[FN#103] This is the god Kartikeya, a mixture of Mars and
Mercury, who revealed to a certain Yugacharya the scriptures known as
"Chauriya-Vidya"—Anglice, "Thieves' Manual." The classical robbers
of the Hindu drama always perform according to its precepts. There is
another work respected by thieves and called the "Chora-Panchashila,"
because consisting of fifty lines.
[FN#104] Supposed to be a good omen.
[FN#105] Share the booty.
[FN#106] Bhawani is one of the many forms of the destroying
goddess, the wife of Shiva.
[FN#107] Wretches who kill with the narcotic seed of the
[FN#108] Better know as "Thugs," which in India means simply
[FN#109] Crucifixion, until late years, was common amongst the
Buddhists of the Burmese empire. According to an eye-witness, Mr. F.
Carey, the puishment was inflicted in two ways. Sometimes criminals
were crucified by their hands and feet being nailed to a scaffold;
others were merely tied up, and fed. In these cases the legs and feet
of the patient began to swell and mortify at the expiration fo three
or four days; men are said to have lived in this state for a
fortnight, and at last they expired from fatigue and mortification.
The sufferings from cramp also must be very severe. In India
generally impalement was more common than crucifixion.
[FN#110] Our Suttee. There is an admirable Hindu proverb, which
says, "No one knows the ways of woman; she kill her husband and
becomes a Sati."
[FN#111] Fate and Destiny are rather Moslem than Hindu fancies.
[FN#112] Properly speaking, the husbandman should plough with not
fewer than four bullocks; but few can afford this. If he plough with
a cow or a bullock, and not with a bull, the rice produced by his
ground is unclean, and may not be used in any religious ceremony.
[FN#113] A shout of triumph, like our "Huzza" or "Hurrah!" of
late degraded into "Hooray." "Hari bol" is of course religious,
meaning "Call upon Hari!" i.e. Krishna, i.e. Vishnu.
[FN#114] This form of suicide is one of those recognized in India.
So in Europe we read of fanatics who, with a suicidal ingenuity, have
succeeded in crucifying themselves.
[FN#115] The river of Jaganath in Orissa; it shares the honours of
sanctity with some twenty-nine others, and in the lower regions it
represents the classical Styx.
[FN#116] Cupid. His wife Rati is the spring personified. The
Hindu poets always unite love and spring, and perhaps physiologically
they are correct.
[FN#117] An incarnation of the third person of the Hindu Triad,
or Triumvirate, Shiva the God of Destruction, the Indian Bacchus. The
image has five faces, and each face has three eyes. In Bengal it is
found in many villages, and the women warn their children not to touch
it on pain of being killed.
[FN#118] A village Brahman on stated occasions receives fees from
all the villagers.
[FN#119] The land of Greece.
[FN#120] Savans, professors. So in the old saying, "Hanta, Pandit
Sansara "—Alas! the world is learned! This a little antedates the
[FN#121] Children are commonly sent to school at the age of five.
Girls are not taught to read, under the common idea that they will
become widows if they do.
[FN#122] Meaning the place of reading the four Shastras.
[FN#123] A certain goddess who plays tricks with mankind. If a
son when grown up act differently from what his parents did, people
say that he has been changed in the womb.
[FN#124] Shani is the planet Saturn, which has an exceedingly
baleful influence in India as elsewhere.
[FN#125] The Eleatic or Materialistic school of Hindu philosophy,
which agrees to explode an intelligent soparate First Cause.
[FN#126] The writings of this school give an excellent view of the
"progressive system," which has popularly been asserted to be a
modern idea. But Hindu philosophy seems to have exhausted every fancy
that can spring from the brain of man.
[FN#127] Tama is the natural state of matter, Raja is passion
acting upon nature, and Satwa is excellence These are the three gunas
or qualities of matter.
[FN#128] Spiritual preceptors and learned men.
[FN#129] Under certain limitations, gambling is allowed hy Hindu
law and the winner has power over the person and property of the
loser. No "debts of honour" in Hindustan!
[FN#130] Quotations from standard works on Hindu criminal law,
which in some points at least is almost as absurd as our civilized
[FN#131] Hindus carry their money tied up in a kind of sheet.
which is wound round the waist and thrown over the shoulder.
[FN#132] A thieves' manual in the Sanskrit tongue; it aspires to
the dignity of a "Scripture."
[FN#133] All sounds, say the Hindus, are of similar origin, and
they do not die; if they did, they could not be remembered.
[FN#134] Gold pieces.
[FN#135] These are the qualifications specified by Hindu classical
authorities as necessary to make a distinguished thief.
[FN#136] Every Hindu is in a manner born to a certain line of
life, virtuous or vicious, honest or dishonest and his Dharma, or
religious duty, consists in conforming to the practice and the worship
of his profession. The "Thug," for instance, worships Bhawani, who
enables him to murder successfully; and his remorse would arise from
neglecting to murder.
[FN#137] Hindu law sensibly punishes, in theory at least, for the
same offence the priest more severely than the layman—a hint for him
to practice what he preaches.
[FN#138] The Hindu Mercury, god of rascals.
[FN#139] A penal offence in India. How is it that we English have
omitted to codify it? The laws of Manu also punish severely all
disdainful expressions, such as "tush" or "pish," addressed during
argument to a priest.
[FN#140] Stanzas, generally speaking, on serious subjects.
[FN#141] Whitlows on the nails show that the sufferer, in the last
life, stole gold from a Brahman.
[FN#142] A low caste Hindu, who catches and exhibits snakes and
performs other such mean offices.
[FN#143] Meaning, in spite of themselves.
[FN#144] When the moon is in a certain lunar mansion, at the
conclusion of the wet season.
[FN#145] In Hindustan, it is the prevailing wind of the hot
[FN#146] Vishnu, as a dwarf, sank down into and secured in the
lower regions the Raja Bali, who by his piety and prayerfulness was
subverting the reign of the lesser gods; as Ramachandra he built a
bridge between Lanka (Ceylon) and the main land; and as Krishna he
defended, by holding up a hill as an umbrella for them, his friends
the shepherds and shepherdesses from the thunders of Indra, whose
worship they had neglected.
[FN#147] The priestly caste sprang, as has been said, from the
noblest part of the Demiurgus; the three others from lower members.
[FN#148] A chew of betel leaf and spices is offered by the master
of the house when dismissing a visitor.
[FN#149] Respectable Hindus say that receiving a fee for a
daughter is like selling flesh.
[FN#150] A modern custom amongst the low caste is for the bride
and bridegroom, in the presence of friends, to place a flower garland
on each other's necks, and thus declare themselves man and wife. The
old classical Gandharva-lagan has been before explained.
[FN#151] Meaning that the sight of each other will cause a smile,
and that what one purposes the other will consent to.
[FN#152] This would be the verdict of a Hindu jury.
[FN#153] Because stained with the powder of Mhendi, or the
Lawsonia inermis shrub.
[FN#154] Kansa's son: so called because the god Shiva, when struck
by his shafts, destroyed him with a fiery glance.
[FN#155] "Great Brahman"; used contemptuously to priests who
officiate for servile men. Brahmans lose their honour by the
following things: By becoming servants to the king; by pursuing any
secular business; by acting priests to Shudras (serviles); by
officiating as priests for a whole village; and by neglecting any part
of the three daily services. Many violate these rules; yet to kill a
Brahman is still one of the five great Hindu sins. In the present age
of the world, the Brahman may not accept a gift of cows or of gold; of
course he despises the law. As regards monkey worship, a certain Rajah
of Nadiya is said to have expended ú10,000 in marrying two monkeys
with all the parade and splendour of the Hindu rite.
[FN#156] The celebrated Gayatri, the Moslem Kalmah.
[FN#157] Kama again.
[FN#158] From "Man," to think; primarily meaning, what makes man
[FN#159] The Cirrhadae of classical writers.
[FN#160] The Hindu Pluto; also called the Just King.
[FN#161] Yama judges the dead. whose souls go to him in four
hours and forty minutes; therefore a corpse cannot be burned till
after that time. His residence is Yamalaya. and it is on the south
side of the earth; down South, as we say. (I, Sam. xxv. 1, and xxx.
15). The Hebrews, like the Hindus, held the northern parts of the
world to be higher than the southern. Hindus often joke a man who is
seen walking in that direction, and ask him where he is going.
[FN#162] The "Ganges," in heaven called Mandakini. I have no idea
why we still adhere to our venerable corruption of the word.
[FN#163] The fabulous mountain supposed by Hindu geographers to
occupy the centre of the universe.
[FN#164] The all-bestowing tree in Indra's Paradise which grants
everything asked of it. It is the Tuba of Al-Islam and is not unknown
to the Apocryphal New Testament.
[FN#165] "Vikramaditya, Lord of the Saka." This is prevoyance on
the part of the Vampire; the king had not acquired the title.
[FN#166] On the sixth day after the child's birth, the god Vidhata
writes all its fate upon its forehead. The Moslems have a similar
idea, and probably it passed to the Hindus.
[FN#167] Goddess of eloquence. "The waters of the Saraswati " is
the classical Hindu phrase for the mirage.
[FN#168] This story is perhaps the least interesting in the
collection. I have translated it literally, in order to give an idea
of the original. The reader will remark in it the source of our own
nursery tale about the princess who was so high born and delicately
bred, that she could discover the three peas laid beneath a straw
mattress and four feather beds. The Hindus, however, believe that
Sybaritism can be carried so far; I remember my Pandit asserting the
truth of the story.
[FN#169] A minister. The word, as is the case with many in this
collection, is quite modern Moslem, and anachronistic.
[FN#170] The cow is called the mother of the gods, and is declared
by Brahma, the first person of the triad, Vishnu and Shiva being the
second and the third, to be a proper object of worship. "If a European
speak to the Hindu about eating the flesh of cows," says an old
missionary, "they immediately raise their hands to their ears; yet
milkmen, carmen, and farmers beat the cow as unmercifully as a
carrier of coals beats his ass in England."The Jains or Jainas (from
ji, to conquer; as subduing the passions) are one of the atheistical
sects with whom the Brahmans have of old carried on the fiercest
religious controversies, ending in many a sanguinary fight. Their
tenets are consequently exaggerated and ridiculed, as in the text.
They believe that there is no such God as the common notions on the
subject point out, and they hold that the highest act of virtue is to
abstain from injuring sentient creatures. Man does not possess an
immortal spirit: death is the same to Brahma and to a fly. Therefore
there is no heaven or hell separate from present pleasure or pain.
Hindu Epicureans!—"Epicuri de grege porci."
[FN#171] Narak is one of the multitudinous places of Hindu
punishment, said to adjoin the residence of Ajarna. The less
cultivated Jains believe in a region of torment. The illuminati,
however, have a sovereign contempt for the Creator, for a future
state, and for all religious ceremonies. As Hindus, however, they
believe in future births of mankind, somewhat influenced by present
actions. The "next birth" in the mouth of a Hindu, we are told, is the
same as "to-morrow" in the mouth of a Christian. The metempsychosis
is on an extensive scale: according to some, a person who loses human
birth must pass through eight millions of successive
incarnationsÄfish, insects, worms, birds, and beastsÄbefore he can
reappear as a man.
[FN#172] Jogi, or Yogi, properly applies to followers of the Yoga
or Patanjala school, who by ascetic practices acquire power over the
elements. Vulgarly, it is a general term for mountebank vagrants,
worshippers of Shiva. The Janganis adore the same deity, and carry
about a Linga. The Sevras are Jain beggars, who regard their chiefs
as superior to the gods of other sects. The Sannyasis are mendicant
followers of Shiva; they never touch metals or fire, and. in religious
parlance, they take up the staff They are opposed to the Viragis,
worshippers of Vishnu, who contend as strongly against the
worshippers of gods who receive bloody offerings. as a Christian
could do against idolatry.
[FN#173] The Brahman, or priest, is supposed to proceed from the
mouth of Brahma, the creating person of the Triad; the Khshatriyas
(soldiers) from his arms; the Vaishyas (enterers into business) from
his thighs; and the Shudras, "who take refuge in the Brahmans," from
his feet. Only high caste men should assume the thread at the age of
[FN#174] Soma. the moon, I have said, is masculine in India.
[FN#176] Nothing astonishes Hindus so much as the apparent want
of affection between the European parent and child.
[FN#177] A third marriage is held improper and baneful to a Hindu
woman. Hence. before the nuptials they betroth the man to a tree,
upon which the evil expends itself, and the tree dies.
[FN#179] An oath. meaning, "From such a falsehood preserve me,
[FN#180] The Indian Neptune.
[FN#181] A highly insulting form of adjuration.
[FN#182] The British Islands—according to Wilford.
[FN#183] Literally the science (veda) of the bow (dhanush). This
weapon, as everything amongst the Hindus, had a divine origin: it was
of three kinds—the common bow, the pellet or stone bow, and the
crossbow or catapult.
[FN#184] It is a disputed point whether the ancient Hindus did or
did not know the use of gunpowder.
[FN#185] It is said to have discharged balls, each 6,400 pounds in
[FN#186] A kind of Mercury, a god with the head and wings of a
bird, who is the Vahan or vehicle of the second person of the Triad,
[FN#187] The celebrated burning springs of Baku, near the Caspian,
are so called. There are many other "fire mouths."
[FN#188] The Hindu Styx.
[FN#189] From Yaksha, to eat; as Rakshasas are from Raksha, to
preserve.—See Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, p. 57.
[FN#190] Shiva is always painted white, no one knows why. His
wife Gauri has also a European complexion. Hence it is generally said
that the sect popularly called "Thugs," who were worshippers of these
murderous gods. spared Englishmen, the latter being supposed to have
some rapport with their deities.
[FN#191] The Hindu shrine is mostly a small building, with two
inner compartments. the vestibule and the Garbagriha, or adytum, in
which stands the image.
[FN#192] Meaning Kali of the cemetery (Smashana); another form of
[FN#193] Not being able to find victims, this pleasant deity, to
satisfy her thirst for the curious juice, cut her own throat that the
blood might spout up into her mouth. She once found herself dancing
on her husband, and was so shocked that in surprise she put out her
tongue to a great length, and remained motionless. She is often
represented in this form.
[FN#194] This ashtanga, the most ceremonious of the five forms of
Hindu salutation, consists of prostrating and of making the eight
parts of the body—namely, the temples, nose and chin, knees and
hands— touch the ground.
[FN#195] "Sidhis," the personified Powers of Nature. At least, so
we explain them: but people do not worship abstract powers.
[FN#196] The residence of Indra, king of heaven, built by Wishwa-
Karma, the architect of the gods.
[FN#197] In other words, to the present day, whenever a Hindu
novelist, romancer, or tale writer seeks a peg upon which to suspend
the texture of his story, he invariably pitches upon the glorious,
pious, and immortal memory of that Eastern King Arthur, Vikramaditya,
shortly called Vikram.